Tracer pharmacokinetic studies are often used in treatment planning for radionuclide therapy including radioimmunotherapy. This study evaluates the validity of using tracer studies to predict radiation doses from therapy with the same radiolabeled antibody. Methods: Quantitative imaging and blood radioactivity were used to obtain the pharmacokinetics and radiation doses that were delivered to the total body, blood, marrow, lungs, liver, kidneys, thyroid, spleen and tumors. Tracer and therapy data for eight patients with lymphoma and one patient with breast cancer were compared using linear regression statistics. Doses of 131I-labeled antibody for the tracer studies ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 GBq (2 to 10 mCi), and therapy doses ranged from 0.7 to 5.6 GBq (20 to 150 mCi). Results: Radiation doses to tissues and, in particular, the bone marrow and tumors were reliably predicted from tracer studies. In this group of patients, median dose to marrow from marrow targeting, total body and blood was 9.2 cGy/GBq for tracer studies and 7.6 cGy/GBq for therapy studies with a median difference of 0.5 cGy/GBq. Median dose to tumors was 81.1 cGy/GBq for tracer studies and 70.3 cGy/GBq for therapy studies with a median difference of 5.9 cGy/GBq. Conclusion: In these patients, tracer studies were predictive of the radiation doses from therapy for total body, major organs and tumors. The radiation doses to marrow and tumors, which are the usual determinants of the therapeutic index, correlated well between tracer and therapy studies (r > 0.95).