Myelotoxicity can be ameliorated by peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) infusion. Continuous irradiation by radioactivity retained in the body after high-dose radioimmunotherapy can damage PBSCs if they are transfused too early. Previously, infusion time was predetermined using the radioactivity concentration in the blood. This study proposes to plan PBSC infusion time based on noninvasive dosimetry that considers damage of PBSCs during PBSC circulation and residence in organs with high radioactivity. Methods: The method considers a time-varying distribution of PBSCs and radioactivity in tissues. Five breast cancer patients received 111In-2IT-BAD-m 170 for imaging, and 3 of the 5 received high doses of 09Y-2IT-BAD-m 170 therapy followed by PBSC infusion. 90Y concentrations in tissues were extrapolated from quantitative imaging of 111In, and 90Y blood concentrations were determined from 90Y in serial blood samples. The radiation dose to PBSCs was determined by time integration of the organ dose rate and PBSC distribution rate. The radiosensitivity of PBSCs was determined by measuring survival of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units with 90Y in cell culture. Results: The mean effective half-life of 90Y within the imaging period (up to 6 d) was 3.7 d for liver, 2.4 d for spleen, 2.1 d for kidneys, 1.8 d for lungs, and 1.6 d for blood. The survival fractions of PBSCs in patients were determined as functions of the infusion time and the injected dose of 90Y-2IT-BAD-m 170. To achieve 90% PBSC survival rate for a 2.0-GBq injection dose, PBSC dosimetry suggested a time interval of 13 d after radioimmunotherapy for PBSC infusion. In contrast, the simple blood concentration method suggested an interval about 7 d for the same PBSC survival rate. In our clinical practice, an interval of 2 wk has been used and worked well. Conclusion: A noninvasive dosimetry method was developed for optimizing the time interval for PBSC infusion after high-dose radionuclide therapy. Our studies suggested that the PBSC dosimetry method was more effective than the blood concentration method in determining the optimal time to reinfuse PBSCs for radiopharmaceuticals that have much a higher activity concentration in organs than that in the blood.