Objective: To determine whether intraoperative hypothermia during cesarean delivery is a risk factor for wound infection. Methods: Eighteen cases with wound infection and 18 controls matched for age, weight, presence of gestational hypertension, and surgery length were selected from a cohort of 900 women who underwent cesarean delivery and who were assessed for wound infection according to strict criteria. Because immediate postoperative temperatures reflect intraoperative temperature nadir accurately and were available universally, we compared the mean immediate postoperative temperatures between cases and controls. Results: In addition to the intentionally matched factors, the groups were well-matched for race, parity, presence of labor, presence of meconium, and duration of membrane rupture. The mean initial postoperative temperatures were similar between the two groups (36.3 ± 0.9C versus 36.6 ± 1.0C, respectively; P = .8). This study had a power of 90% to detect an intergroup difference of 1C. Conclusion: In this case-control study of cesarean delivery, intraoperative hypothermia was not a risk factor for wound infection.