Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between applicant gender and factors that influence obstetrics and gynecology residency program selection. Study design: A national survey was conducted of graduates of US allopathic medical schools who were registered with the Electronic Residency Application Service for the year 2003 and who indicated that obstetrics and gynecology was their primary specialty choice. The selection prevalence of 20 possible influential factors was analyzed by gender. Results: Our study cohort consisted of 450 eligible respondents, 80.4% of whom were female. There were no significant differences by gender in regards to applicant age, race, marital status, number of dependents, or geographic region of medical school. Overall, the 4 factors with the highest selection prevalence in both gender groups were all related to workplace environment. Compared with male respondents, female respondents were more likely to consider how well the current residents seemed to work together (99.2% vs 94.3%; P = .002) and the amount of conference/didactic teaching (80.4% vs 68.2%; P = .01). Male respondents were more likely to consider the quality of the hospital facility (92% vs 82%; P = .02), salary (28.4% vs 17.1%; P = .02), and supplemental income (moonlighting) opportunities (18.2% vs 8.6%; P = .008), as compared with female respondents. Conclusion: Significant differences in gender-associated preferences that are related to obstetrics and gynecology residency program selection exist and include both curricular and financial factors. © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.