OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether pregnancy-associated hypertension (preeclampsia or gestational hypertension) among women with varying degrees of glucose intolerance during pregnancy is associated with maternal metabolic syndrome 5-10 years later. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of women previously enrolled in a treatment trial of mild gestational diabetes mellitus or an observational study of lesser degrees of glucose intolerance evaluated 5-10 years after their index pregnancy. At follow-up, women underwent anthropometric and blood pressure measurements and analysis of fasting glucose and serum lipids. RESULTS: A total of 825 women (47% of eligible women from the original study) were included in this analysis and evaluated at a median 7 years after their index pregnancy at a median age of 35 years. Overall, 239 (29%) had subsequent metabolic syndrome. The frequency of metabolic syndrome and its components was highest in the women who had pregnancy-associated hypertension and delivered preterm. After adjusting for confounding factors, pregnancy-associated hypertension in women who delivered preterm was associated with subsequent hypertension (130/85 mm Hg or greater; relative risk 3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-4.80, P<.001), high triglycerides (150 mg/dL or greater; relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.06-3.14, P.03), and metabolic syndrome (per the American Heart Association and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement; relative risk 1.78, 95% CI 1.14-2.78, P.01) compared with women who remained normotensive throughout their index pregnancy and were delivered at term. CONCLUSION: Women with varying degrees of glucose intolerance who experienced pregnancy-associated hypertension and then delivered preterm had a higher frequency of subsequent hypertension, high triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome 5-10 years later.