The objective of this study was to define the behavioral, electrophysiological, and morphological characteristics of spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) in female B7-2 deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. A cohort of 77 female B7-2 deficient and 31 wild-type control NOD mice were studied from 18 to 40 weeks of age. At pre-defined time points, the dorsal caudal tail and sciatic motor nerve conduction studies (MNCS) were performed. Sciatic nerves were harvested formorphological evaluation. SAPP mice showed slowly progressive severe weakness in hind and forelimbs without significant recovery after 30 weeks of age. MNCS showed progressive reduction in mean compound motor action potential amplitudes and conduction velocities, and increase in mean total waveform duration from 24 to 27 weeks of age, peaking between 32 and 35 weeks of age. Toluidine blue-stained, semi-thin plastic-embedded sections demonstrated focal demyelination associated with mononuclear cell infiltration early in the disease course, with progressively diffuse demyelination and axonal loss associated with more intense mononuclear infiltration at peak severity. Immunohistochemistry confirmed macrophage-predominant inflammation. This study verifies SAPP as a progressive, unremitting chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with axonal loss. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.