The mechanisms of hematogenous leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) are largely unknown. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We developed a cytokine-activated human in vitro BNB model using primary endoneurial endothelial cells. Endothelial treatment with 10U/ml tissue necrosis factor-α and 20U/ml interferon-γ resulted in de novo expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL11, and CCL20, with increased expression of CXCL2-3, CXCL8, and CXCL10 relative to basal levels. Cytokine treatment induced/enhanced ICAM-1, E- and P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the alternatively spliced pro-adhesive fibronectin variant, fibronectin connecting segment-1 expression in a time-dependent manner, without alterations in junctional adhesion molecule-A expression. Lymphocytes and monocytes from untreated GBS patients express ICAM-1 counterligands, α M- and α L-integrin, with differential regulation of α M-integrin expression compared to healthy controls. Under flow conditions that mimic capillary hemodynamics in vivo, there was a >3-fold increase in total GBS patient and healthy control mononuclear leukocyte adhesion/migration at the BNB following cytokine treatment relative to the untreated state. Function neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against human α M-integrin (CD11b) and ICAM-1 reduced untreated GBS patient mononuclear leukocyte trafficking at the BNB by 59% and 64.2%, respectively. Monoclonal antibodies against α L-integrin (CD11a) and human intravenous immunoglobulin reduced total leukocyte adhesion/migration by 22.8% and 17.6%, respectively. This study demonstrates differential regulation of α M-integrin on circulating mononuclear cells in GBS, as well as an important role for α M-integrin-ICAM-1 interactions in pathogenic GBS patient leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.