The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the public health initiatives for detection and slowing its progression have placed special emphasis on controlling proteinuria and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In addition to the traditional blockers of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin receptors, mineralocorticoid receptor blockers (MRBs) have come into focus as anti-proteinuric agents with moderate anti-hypertensive effects. The beneficial effects of MRBs on mortality in patients with cardiac disease have been well described. We review the role of aldosterone in end-organ damage, the rationales for using MRBs as adjuncts to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in treating CKD, and the adverse effects that may occur when these agents are used in combination. Suggestions are included for avoiding serious adverse events in CKD patients treated with MRBs. There is a clearly defined need for prospective outcome studies focused on cardiovascular mortality as well as progression of CKD in patients treated with MRBS and other inhibitors of the RAAS. Copyright © 2009 by the American Society of Nephrology.