Background: Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells from intimal lesions. PET imaging using S1PR1 as a biomarker would increase our understanding of its role in vascular pathologies including in-stent restenosis. Methods: The S1PR1 compound TZ3321 was synthesized for in vitro characterization and labeled with Carbon-11 for in vivo studies. The biodistribution of [11C]TZ3321 was evaluated in normal mice; microPET and immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies were performed using a murine femoral artery wire-injury model of restenosis. Results: The high potency of TZ3321 for S1PR1 (IC50 = 2.13 ± 1.63 nM), and high selectivity (>1000 nM) for S1PR1 over S1PR2 and S1PR3 were confirmed. Biodistribution data revealed prolonged retention of [11C]TZ3321 in S1PR1-enriched tissues. MicroPET imaging of [11C]TZ3321 showed higher uptake in the wire-injured arteries of ApoE−/− mice than in injured arteries of wild-type mice (SUV 0.40 ± 0.06 vs 0.28 ± 0.04, n = 6, P < .001); FDG-PET showed no difference (SUV 0.98 ± 0.04 vs 0.94 ± 0.01, n = 6, P > .05). Post-PET autoradiography showed >4-fold higher [11C]TZ3321 retention in the injured artery of ApoE−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Subsequent IHC staining confirmed higher expression of S1PR1 in the neointima of the injured artery of ApoE−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Conclusions: This preliminary study supports the potential use of PET for quantification of the S1PR1 expression as a biomarker of neointimal hyperplasia.