Phase III open-label randomized study of cytarabine in combination with amonafide L-malate or daunorubicin as induction therapy for patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia

Academic Article


  • Purpose: Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML), defined as AML arising after a prior myelodysplastic syndrome or after antineoplastic therapy, responds poorly to current therapies. It is often associated with adverse karyotypic abnormalities and overexpression of proteins that mediate drug resistance. We performed a phase III trial to determine whether induction therapy with cytarabine and amonafide L-malate, a DNA intercalator and non-ATP-dependent topoisomerase II inhibitor that evades drug resistance mechanisms, yielded a superior complete remission rate than standard therapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin in sAML. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated sAML were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to cytarabine 200 mg/m2 continuous intravenous (IV) infusion once per day on days 1 to 7 plus either amonafide 600 mg/m2 IV over 4 hours on days 1 to 5 (A + C arm) or daunorubicin 45 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes once per day on days 1 to 3 (D + C arm). Results The complete remission (CR) rate was 46% (99 of 216 patients) in A + C arm and 45% (97 of 217 patients) in D + C arm (P = .81). The 30- and 60-day mortality rates were 19% and 28% in A +C arm and 13% and 21% in D + C arm, respectively. Conclusion Induction treatment with A + C did not improve the CR rate compared with D + C in patients with sAML.
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    Author List

  • Stone RM; Mazzola E; Neuberg D; Allen SL; Pigneux A; Stuart RK; Wetzler M; Rizzieri D; Erba HP; Damon L
  • Start Page

  • 1252
  • End Page

  • 1257
  • Volume

  • 33
  • Issue

  • 11