Ventricular echo beats during ventricular pacing or junctional bradycardia: Studies in the normal canine heart

Academic Article


  • In 15 adult dogs ventricular echoes were elicited during sinus rhythm by incremental ventricular pacing and during atrioventricular (AV) junctional rhythm by depressing simultaneously AV junctional automaticity and retrograde AV nodal conduction. Concomitant slowing of AV junctional automaticity and conduction was achieved by selective intranodal administration of verapamil. In three dogs incremental pacing from either ventricle failed to retrogradely activate the atria, and in each case the site of block was found to be in the AV node. In two dogs with retrograde atrial capture there was little or no rate-dependency of retrograde ventriculoatrial (VA) conduction. During incremental ventricular pacing a single ventricular echo beat was observed in 10 of the 12 dogs that had atrial capture, and the atrium appears to be an essential link in the production of each ventricular echo. Ventricular echo occurred when the time allotted for retrograde VA conduction amounted to 70 ± 4% of the duration of the ventricular pacing cycle length. During AV junctional rhythm, a single ventricular echo was elicited in half of the dogs and in each of those cases intranodal verapamil produced a profound depression of retrograde VA conduction. These experiments suggest that retrograde AV nodal longitudinal dissociation occurs in the slow current-dependent cells of the AV node. © 1986.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Urthaler F
  • Start Page

  • 672
  • End Page

  • 678
  • Volume

  • 111
  • Issue

  • 4