Rate Modulated Pacing Based on Right Ventricular dP/dt: Quantitative Analysis of Chronotropic Response

Academic Article


  • Right ventricular contractility increases in response to catecholamine stimulation and greater ventricular preload, factors that increase with exercise workload. Thus, the maximum systolic dP/dt may be a potentially useful sensor to control the pacing rate of a permanent pacing system. The present study was designed to test the long‐term performance of a permanent pacemaker that modulates pacing rate based on right ventricular dP/dt and to quantitatively analyze the chronotropic response characteristics of this sensor in a group of patients with widely varying structural heart diseases and degrees of hemodynamic impairment. A permanent pacing system incorporating a high fidelity pressure sensor in the lead for measurement of right ventricular dP/dt was implanted in 13 patients with atrial arrhythmias and AV block, including individuals with coronary artery disease, hypertension, severe obstructive pulmonary disease with prior pneumonectomy, atrial septal defect, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and mitral stenosis. Patients underwent paired treadmill exercise testing in the VVI and VVIR pacing modes with measurement of expired gas exchange and quantitative analysis of chronotropic response using the concept of metabolic reserve. The peak right ventricular dP/dt ranged from 238–891 mmHg/sec with a pulse pressure that ranged from 19–41 mmHg. There was a positive correlation between the right ventricular dP/dt and pulse pressure (r = 0.70, P = 0.012). The maximum pacing rate and VO2max were 72 ± 6 beats/min and 12.61 ± 4.0 cc O2/kg per minute during VVI pacing and increased to 124 ± 18 beats/min and 15.89 ± 5.9 cc 02/kg per minute in the VVIR pacing mode (P < 0.0003 and P < 0.002, respectively). The integrated area under the normalized rate response curve was 96.7 ± 45.7% of expected during exercise and 100.1 ± 43.4% of expected during recovery. One patient demonstrated an anomalous increase in pacing rate in response to a change in posture to the left lateral decubitus position. Thus, the peak positive right ventricular dP/dt is an effective rate control parameter for permanent pacing systems. The chronotropic response was proportional to metabolic workload during treadmill exercise in this study population with widely varying forms of structural heart disease. Copyright © 1994, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
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  • Start Page

  • 1344
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  • 1354
  • Volume

  • 17
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  • 8