An update on transesophageal echocardiography views 2016: 2D versus 3D tee views

Academic Article


  • In 1980, Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) first technology has introduced the standard of practice for most cardiac operating rooms to facilitate surgical decision making. Transoesophageal echocardiography as a diagnostic tool is now an integral part of intraoperative monitoring practice of cardiac anaesthesiology. Practice guidelines for perioperative transesophageal echocardiography are systematically developed recommendations that assist in the management of surgical patients, were developed by Indian Association of Cardiac Anaesthesiologists (IACTA). This update relates to the former IACTA practice guidelines published in 2013 and the ASE/EACTA guidelines of 2015. The current authors believe that the basic echocardiographer should be familiar with the technical skills for acquiring 28 cross sectional imaging planes. These 28 cross sections would provide also the format for digital acquisition and storage of a comprehensive TEE examination and adds 5 more additional views, introduced for different clinical scenarios in recent times. A comparison of 2D TEE views versus 3D TEE views is attempted for the first time in literature, in this manuscript. Since, cardiac anaesthesia variability exists in the precise anatomic orientation between the heart and the oesophagus in individual patients, an attempt has been made to provide specific criteria based on identifiable anatomic landmarks to improve the reproducibility and consistency of image acquisition for each of the standard cross sections.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kapoor P; Muralidhar K; Nanda N; Mehta Y; Shastry N; Irpachi K; Baloria A
  • Start Page

  • S56
  • End Page

  • S72
  • Volume

  • 19
  • Issue

  • 5