Despite technical advances, the ability to restore motor function following a brachial plexus avulsion is limited. Twenty patients who suffered the loss of elbow flexion following a brachial plexus avulsion injury underwent a neurotization procedure in an attempt to restore that lost function. Of 16 patients who underwent intercostal to musculocutaneous nerve anastomosis, seven obtained good elbow flexion. Four patients who no longer had a viable biceps brachialis muscle underwent an anastomosis between transposed intercostal nerves and a free vascularized gracilis muscle grafted to the position of the biceps. Two of these patients obtained good elbow flexion. Although synkinesis between the biceps brachialis and the inspiratory muscles can be demonstrated during coughing and deep inspiration, the patients learn to flex their reinnervated biceps brachialis muscle and maintain flexion independent of respiration.