Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the treatment of choice for asymptomatic and symptomatic disease causing greater than 60% internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Recently, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with stent placement has been investigated as a therapeutic option for the treatment of ICA stenosis. In this report the authors document CEA performed after PTA with stent placement and describe the pathological findings. A standard CEA was performed. The surgical intervention was more difficult secondary to the following variables: the length of the exposure necessary to dissect out the metallic stent, the difficulty with opening and cutting the artery, and the care required to remove the stent to avoid vessel wall perforation. Pathological examination of the specimen demonstrated classic atherosclerotic changes revealing persistence of native disease. The metallic stent was embedded within the plaque. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the physiological and biological changes that occur in the carotid vessel wall after PTA with stent placement. It is concluded that CEA of a stent-containing carotid artery is feasible and should be considered as an alternative when recurrent stenosis occurs after PTA.