Twelve hypertensive patients underwent percutaneous transluminal dilation (PTD) for relief of arterial stenosis complicating renal allotransplantation. Two patients underwent repeat PTD for recurrent stenosis and hypertension. Six patients had end to end anastomosis of the donor renal artery to the recipient hypogastric artery; four of six PTDs were successful. Six patients had end to side anastomosis of the donor renal artery to the recipient external iliac artery; seven of eight PTDs, including one of two repeat PTDs, were successful. Prior to PTD, all patients were using several antihypertensive medications. Following successful PTD, the mean blood pressure dropped from 184 ± 15/118 ± 9 to 133 ± 13/89 ± 11 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and remained at that level for up to 15 months (average followup 9 months) with decreased or no antihypertensive medications. Since surgical correction of arterial stenosis occurring after renal transplantation is difficult and may endanger the graft, PTD should be the first interventional therapy. © 1980 by The Williams and Wilkins Co.