The aim of this study was to determine the success of the nonoperative management of persistent duodenal fistulae (DF) with percutaneous transhepatic duodenal diversion (PTDD). Retrospective chart review identified six patients with DF managed by PTDD from 2006 to 2007. Patient outcomes and complications were assessed. The etiology of DF included pancreatic surgery (three patients), gastrectomy (two patients), and Crohn's disease (one patient). PTDD was performed by interventional radiology at a median time of 37 days after fistula recognition. After PTDD, fistula drainage decreased from 775 cc/day (range 200 to 2,525 cc/day) to <50 cc/day at a median of 8 days. Patients were discharged 32 days (median) after PTDD. One patient with Crohn's disease required definitive surgical treatment. Of the remaining five patients, the PTDD tube was capped at 27 days (median) after placement and was removed on an outpatient basis at 79 days (median) after placement. There was no mortality, no fistula recurrence, or complications associated with PTDD placement. We present an algorithm for the nonoperative management of persistent postoperative DF. In this limited series, PTDD was highly effective at definitively treating DF, especially in the acute setting. PTDD should be considered by surgeons facing the management of postoperative DF. © 2007 The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract.