We previously mapped a type 2 diabetes (T2D) locus on chromosome 16 (Chr 16) in an F2 intercross from the BTBR T (+) tf (BTBR) Lep ob/ob and C57BL/6 (B6) Lep ob/ob mouse strains. Introgression of BTBR Chr 16 into B6 mice resulted in a consomic mouse with reduced fasting plasma insulin and elevated glucose levels. We derived a panel of sub-congenic mice and narrowed the diabetes susceptibility locus to a 1.6 Mb region. Introgression of this 1.6 Mb fragment of the BTBR Chr 16 into lean B6 mice (B6.16 BT36-38) replicated the phenotypes of the consomic mice. Pancreatic islets from the B6.16 BT36-38 mice were defective in the second phase of the insulin secretion, suggesting that the 1.6 Mb region encodes a regulator of insulin secretion. Within this region, syntaxin-binding protein 5-like (Stxbp5l) or tomosyn-2 was the only gene with an expression difference and a non-synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the B6 and BTBR alleles. Overexpression of the b-tomosyn-2 isoform in the pancreatic β-cell line, INS1 (832/13), resulted in an inhibition of insulin secretion in response to 3 mM 8-bromo cAMP at 7 mM glucose. In vitro binding experiments showed that tomosyn-2 binds recombinant syntaxin-1A and syntaxin-4, key proteins that are involved in insulin secretion via formation of the SNARE complex. The B6 form of tomosyn-2 is more susceptible to proteasomal degradation than the BTBR form, establishing a functional role for the coding SNP in tomosyn-2. We conclude that tomosyn-2 is the major gene responsible for the T2D Chr 16 quantitative trait locus (QTL) we mapped in our mouse cross. Our findings suggest that tomosyn-2 is a key negative regulator of insulin secretion. © 2011 Bhatnagar et al.