Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the primary causes of suboptimal outcomes in chemotherapy of children with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). The mechanisms of drug transport resistance may chiefly contribute to MDR. Expression and/or activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multiple resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1), lung-resistance related protein (LRP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) have been considered to be associated with unfavourable outcomes in pediatric AML patients. In previous studies, we found WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein-1 (WAVE1) was involved in the MDR mechanisms in K562/A02 leukemia cells. To investigate the expression of WAVE1, P-gp, MRP1, LRP/MVP and BCRP; and if WAVE1 is involved in MDR of human leukemia cell. WAVE1, P-gp, MRP1, LRP, BCRP mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and Western blot in a cohort of 52 children with acute myeloblastic leukemia. During follow-up, of the 52 patients, 21 were documented as being relapsing or refractory, and 31 were induced into complete continuous remission. Furthermore, HL60 cells and HL60/ADR cells were transiently transfected with PCDNA3.1-WAVE1 reconstructed plasmid and specifically siRNA to WAVE1 respectively, and the expression of WAVE1, MRP1 and BCRP before and after transfection was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. (1) The expression levels of WAVE1, P-gp, MRP, LRP and BCRP in refractory/relapsing group were much higher than that in complete continuous remission (CCR) group. (2) WAVE1 mRNA and protein expression in BMMCs of children were at higher levels when they were newly diagnosed or relapsed, compared with complete continuous remission. (3) The WAVE1 expression at mRNA and protein level in HL60/ADR cells was increased by about 353% and 95% respectively as compared with that in HL60 cells. (4) Overexpression of WAVE1 in HL60 cell lines upregulated the expression levels of MRP and BCRP (MRP mRNA and protein level were increased by about 16.54 times and 129% respectively, BCRP was increased by 4.93 times and 96%); whereas suppression of WAVE1 expression by RNA interference downregulated the expression levels of MRP1 and BCRP (MRP mRNA and protein level was only 11% and 43% of pre-disturbance respectively, BCRP was 14% and 71%). Higher levels of WAVE1 in the BM indicate an unfavorable prognosis in children with AML. WAVE1 is related to the development of AML and involved in the MDR mechanisms, and regulates the level of MRP1 and BCRP.