The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain to up-regulate B7-1 and B7-2 on antigen-presenting cells and to examine the functional roles these costimulatory molecules play in mediating immune responses to Salmonella and to an expressed cloned antigen, the saliva-binding region (SBR) of antigen I/II. In vitro stimulation of B cells (B220+), macrophages (CD11b+), and dendritic cells (CD11c+) with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium induced an up-regulation of B7-2 and, especially, B7-1 expression. The in vivo functional roles of B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1/2 were evaluated in BALB/c wild-type and B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1/2 knockout (KO) mice following intranasal immunization with the Salmonella expressing the cloned SBR. Differential requirements for B7-1 and B7-2 were observed upon primary and secondary immunizations. Compared to wild-type controls, B7-1 and B7-2 KO mice had reduced mucosal and systemic anti-Salmonella antibody responses after a single immunization, while only B7-1 KO mice exhibited suppressed anti-Salmonella antibody responses following the second immunization. Mucosal and systemic antibody responses to SBR were reduced following the primary immunization, whereas a compensatory role for either B7-1 or B7-2 was observed after the second immunization. B7-1/2 double KO mice failed to induce detectable levels of mucosal or systemic immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgG antibody responses to either Salmonella or SBR. These findings demonstrate that B7-1 and B7-2 can play distinct as well as redundant roles for mediating mucosal and systemic antibody responses, which are likely dependent upon the nature of the antigen.