Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to Identify and discuss the environmental, social, and political factors that influence child health in less-developed countries. Discuss the limitations of global child health policies and programs that are based mostly on vertical, disease-focused programs. Analyze the background to, and rationale for, the Alma Ata Declaration of Primary Health Care. Present a coherent case for the adoption of a global child health policy that is based on the tenets of the Alma Declaration of Primary Health Care. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.