Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to Identify and discuss the origin, types, and prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM). Critically appraise factors that help to perpetuate the practice of FGM globally. Review the immediate and long-term consequences of FGM and discuss the various approaches for caring for victims. Analyze opportunities for prevention activities targeted at local practitioners of FGM, parents, at-risk adolescents, health and social workers, governments, religious authorities, the civil society, and the community. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.