Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter and answering the discussion questions that follow, you should be able to Explain the global burden of malaria, discuss its clinical manifestations, and appraise its health impact on women and children. Analyze the mechanisms and consequences of malaria and HIV co-infection and discuss current treatment, control and prevention strategies. Describe the challenges posed by vector resistance to insecticides, parasite resistance to antimalarials, climate change, wars/conflicts, and HIV/AIDS to malaria control and prevention efforts. Evaluate social, cultural, and economic limitations of community-based programs for malaria control and prevention. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.