Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of oral PTAU, 5-(phenylthio)acyclouridine, to increase the concentration of endogenous plasma uridine. PTAU is a new potent and specific inhibitor of uridine phosphorylase (UrdPase, EC 22.214.171.124), the enzyme responsible for uridine catabolism. This compound was designed as a lipophilic inhibitor in order to facilitate its access to the liver and intestine, the main organs involved in uridine catabolism. Methods: PTAU was administered to mice orally and parenterally. The plasma levels of PTAU as well as those of uridine and its catabolite uracil were measured by HPLC, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Results: PTAU was fully adsorbed after oral administration (over 100% oral bioavailability) and no PTAU metabolites were detected. PTAU administered orally had no apparent toxicity at doses up to 120 mg/kg per day for 5 days. Parenteral administration of PTAU at 30, 45 and 60 mg/kg increased the concentration of endogenous plasma uridine (1.8±0.2 μM) by approximately six-, seven-, and nine-fold, respectively. Plasma uridine concentration remained higher than control values until 8 h after PTAU administration. Similar results were obtained following oral administration of PTAU. The baseline concentrations of endogenous plasma uridine were increased by approximately six-, seven- and ten-fold by oral administration of PTAU at 30, 45 and 60 mg/kg, respectively, and remained higher than the controls until 8 h after PTAU administration. PTAU did not alter the concentration of endogenous plasma uracil. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the PTAU in elevating and sustaining high plasma uridine concentrations may be useful in rescuing or protecting the host from toxicities of various chemotherapeutic pyrimidine analogues as well as in the management of medical disorders that respond to the administration of uridine.