Our current understanding of Na+ transport defects has been greatly expanded over the last several years and has provided new insights into unusual clinical syndromes resulting from mutations of specific ion transporters. These genetic disorders affect Na+ balance, with both Na+ retaining and Na+ wasting conditions being the consequence. A major focus of these studies has been the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which can be directly affected by mutations (eg, Liddle syndrome, autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism, type I) or by changes in the response to (autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism, type I), or production of mineralocorticoids (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism). As a result, we now have clearly defined syndromes in which ENaC activity is "dysregulated" with subsequent development of disorders of systemic blood pressure that can be attributed to a primary renal mechanisms. The focus of the current review is on Liddle syndrome ("pseudoaldosteronism").