Zone of zero–associated phoria in patients with convergence insufficiency

Academic Article


  • The zone of zero-associated phoria (ZZAP) was determined for patients with convergence insufficiency. The ZZAP for these patients differs from that of asymptomatic patients. It is concluded that the ZZAP may be used as a supplemental test to help the clinician detect convergence insufficiency and possibly other binocular deficiencies. © 1983 American Academy of Optometry.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Rutstein RS; Godio LB
  • Start Page

  • 582
  • End Page

  • 585
  • Volume

  • 60
  • Issue

  • 7