Direct versus indirect environmental print instruction and early reading ability in kindergarten children

Academic Article


  • By the time most young children come to kindergarten they have been exposed to a barrage of print in their environment such as logos, billboards, signs, labels, clothing, and fastfood paraphernalia. A study was conducted to ascertain if there were any significant differences in the early reading ability of kindergarten children who received direct instruction with environmental print; those who received indirect (center-based) instruction with environmental print; and those who received no instruction with environmental print. One hundred and six kindergarten children from six classrooms in a large inner-city school system in the Southeastern United States composed the convenience sample. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design was used with two classes designated as the control group; two classes receiving direct instruction with environmental print activities; and two classes receiving indirect instruction with environmental print activities. The research was conducted in three phases which included pretest, treatment, and post-test phases. The Test of Early Reading Ability - 2 was individually administered followed by a treatment period which lasted 8 months. The first author modeled lessons for the direct instruction group and assisted in setting up the learning. ©1997 Taylor & Francis.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Reading Psychology  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kuby P; Aldridge J
  • Start Page

  • 91
  • End Page

  • 104
  • Volume

  • 18
  • Issue

  • 2