Polyoma virus BK-induced hemorrhagic cystitis is an important cause of morbidity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Fluoroquinolones have been shown in vitro to inhibit BK viral replication by direct inhibition of the BK-encoded DNA gyrase. We hypothesized that extended prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin may decrease the incidence of severe (grades 3 and 4) BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (sBKHC) after HSCT. We retrospectively collected patient and transplant data, as well as incidence of sBKHC, for all consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT between June 2006 and August 2010 at our institution. Prophylaxis for sBKHC with ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily from day 0 until day 60 had been instituted in March 2009, delimiting a group receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (CP) or no prophylaxis (NP). We compared the cumulative incidence of sBKHC in CP and NP, including death in absence of sBKHC as a competing risk. Ninety-two consecutive patients were included in the analysis, 44 in CP and 48 in NP. Median age of patients was 50 years (range: 19-70), and 47% received a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The cumulative incidence of sBKHC was significantly reduced in CP (2.6% versus 20.9%, P = 01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that assignment to CP and concomitant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were the only factors independently associated with the occurrence of sBKHC. Patients in CP did not experience a higher risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and were less likely to develop episodes of bacteremia. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis appears safe and effective in reducing the incidence of severe BKHC after allogeneic HSCT. © 2011 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.