The assessment of functional coronary lesion severity using intracoronary hemodynamic parameters like the pressure-derived fractional flow reserve and the flow-derived coronary flow reserve are known to rely critically on the establishment of maximal hyperemia. We evaluated a hyperemia-free index, basal pressure drop coefficient (bCDP), that combines pressure and velocity for simultaneous assessment of the status of both epicardial and microvascular circulations. In 23 pigs, simultaneous measurements of distal coronary arterial pressure and flow were performed using a dual-sensor tipped guidewire in the settings of both normal and abnormal microcirculation with the presence of epicardial lesions of area stenosis (AS) < 50% and AS > 50%. The bCDP, a parameter based on fundamental fluid dynamics principles, was calculated as the transtenotic pressure-drop divided by the dynamic pressure in the distal vessel, measured under baseline (without hyperemia) conditions. The group mean values of bCDP for normal (84 ± 18) and abnormal (124.5 ± 15.6) microcirculation were significantly different. Similarly, the mean values of bCDP from AS < 50% (72.5 ± 16.1) and AS > 50% (136 ± 17.2) were also significantly different (p < 0.05). The bCDP could significantly distinguish between lesions of AS < 50% to AS > 50% under normal microcirculation (52.1 vs. 85.8; p < 0.05) and abnormal microcirculation (84.9 vs. 172; p < 0.05). Further, the bCDP correlated linearly and significantly with the hyperemic parameters FFR (r = 0.42, p < 0.05) and CDP (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). The bCDP is a promising clinical diagnostic parameter that can independently assess the severity of epicardial stenosis and microvascular impairment. We believe that it has an immediate appeal for detection of coronary artery disease if validated clinically. © 2014 Biomedical Engineering Society.