Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Evidence of Pleiotropy and New Susceptibility Loci

Academic Article


  • Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) and substance abuse/dependence seems to represent a specific subset within the phenotypic ADHD spectrum. Methods: We applied complex segregation and linkage analyses in a set of multigenerational families densely segregating ADHD comorbid with ODD, CD, alcohol abuse/dependence, and nicotine dependence. Results: Our data suggest that ADHD cosegregates with disruptive behaviors as a unique, phenotypically variable trait as evidenced by highly significant pair-wise linkages among: ADHD and ODD (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 14.19), ADHD and CD (LOD = 5.34), ODD and CD (LOD = 6.68), and CD and alcohol abuse/dependence (LOD = 3.98). In addition to previously reported ADHD susceptibility loci, we found evidence of linkage for comorbid ADHD phenotypes to loci at 8q24, 2p21-22.3, 5p13.1-p13.3, 12p11.23-13.3, 8q15, and 14q21.1-22.2. These results were replicated with an affected status phenotype derived from latent class clusters. Conclusions: Patterns of cosegregation of ADHD with comorbidities can inform our understanding of the inheritance patterns not only of ADHD but also of disruptive behavioral disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence. Refining the comorbid ADHD phenotype by determining the cosegregation profile of specific comorbidities might be a powerful tool for defining significant regions of linkage. © 2007 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Jain M; Palacio LG; Castellanos FX; Palacio JD; Pineda D; Restrepo MI; Muñoz JF; Lopera F; Wallis D; Berg K
  • Start Page

  • 1329
  • End Page

  • 1339
  • Volume

  • 61
  • Issue

  • 12