Goals and Background: Fundoplication is increasingly used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Few studies have tracked patient outcomes of the Toupet method for more than I year. Further clinical, physiologic, and patient-based outcome measures have not been well characterized for this method. The current study conducts a long-term, comprehensive outcome evaluation in patients receiving Toupet fundoplication. Study: Fifty-five patients who had previously undergone fundoplication were examined. In a subset of 24 patients, esophagogastroduodenoscopy was used to assess the severity of reflux esophagitis. Manometry and ambulatory pH monitoring also were performed. Results: Patients were studied 2.9 (± 0.7) years after surgery. Sixty-seven percent of the sample reported heartburn, 51% reported postoperative bloating, 33% reported regurgitation, and 20% reported dysphagia. Thirty-three percent reported the use of prescription medications for GERD-related symptoms. Health status was diminished relative to population norms. Degree of GERD severity was associated with symptom reports and medication use. Conclusions: Although fundoplication is thought to be a curative procedure, the current findings suggest that many patients take symptomatic therapies and report symptoms and diminished health status up to 2 years after the procedure. These outcomes are associated with physiologic findings. Thus, these findings suggest that symptom-free status and absence of medication use cannot be assumed for all patients after Toupet fundoplication.