Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the University of Alabama at Birmingham experience with routine intraoperative ultrasound (IUS)Yguided tandem placement for cervical cancer. Methods: Between 1999 and 2008, 243 cervical cancer patients underwent IUS-guided tandem placement. One hundred thirty-nine patients received low-dose-rate brachytherapy, and 104 received high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Three hundred fifty-six IUS-guided procedures were performed. Clinical and imaging data were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate complications requiring reinsertion of tandem placement in the context of IUS. Results: All 243 cervical cancer patients completed intracavitary brachytherapy. Five (1.4%) of 356 IUS-guided applicator placements resulted in uterine perforation. All of these patients underwent successful tandem insertion on the second attempt, and no significant clinical sequelae occurred. Intraoperative ultrasound enabled direct uterine visualization and facilitated real-time feedback for selection of a suitable tandem length and curvature; no suboptimal placements requiring return to the operating room occurred (excluding perforation). Conclusions: In this large series, IUS guidance substantially increased the rate of successful applicator placement and diminished the rate of uterine perforation relative to historical controls. We strongly recommend the use of IUS guidance during operative intrauterine tandem placement for cervical cancer. © 2013 by IGCS and ESGO.