The effects of chronic inorganic and organic phosphate exposure on bactericidal activity of the coelomic fluid of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

Academic Article


  • The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus can survive chronic exposure to sodium phosphate (inorganic phosphate) concentrations as high as 3.2 mg L- 1, and triethyl phosphate (organic phosphate) concentrations of 1000 mg L- 1. However, chronic exposure to low (0.8 mg L- 1 inorganic and 10 mg L- 1 organic phosphate), medium (1.6 mg L- 1 inorganic and 100 mg L- 1 organic phosphate) or high (3.2 mg L- 1 inorganic and 1000 mg L- 1 organic phosphate) sublethal concentrations of these phosphates inhibit bactericidal clearance of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Bacteria were exposed to coelomic fluid collected from individuals maintained in either artificial seawater, or three concentrations of either inorganic phosphate or organic phosphate. Sterile marine broth, natural seawater and cell free coelomic fluid (cfCF) were employed as controls. Bacterial survival indices were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h periods once a week for four weeks. Bacteria were readily eliminated from the whole coelomic fluid (wCF) of individuals maintained in artificial seawater. Individuals maintained in inorganic phosphates were able to clear bacteria following a two week exposure period, while individuals maintained at even low concentrations of organic phosphates failed to clear all bacteria from their coelomic fluid. Exposure to phosphates represses antimicrobial defenses and may ultimately compromise survival of L. variegatus in the nearshore environment. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Böttger SA; McClintock JB
  • Start Page

  • 39
  • End Page

  • 44
  • Volume

  • 150
  • Issue

  • 1