• Timothy R. Levine is Distinguished Professor and Chair of Communication Studies at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). Levine’s teaching and research interests include deception, interpersonal communication, persuasion and social influence, experimental research design, measurement validation, and statistical conclusions validity. He has published more than 140 journal articles. His research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, and Department of Justice and his work has received press coverage from New York Times, Washington Post, NPR, NBC, CNN, Discovery Chanel, and National Geographic. His most recent book, Duped: Truth-Default Theory and the Social Science of Lying and Deception, published in 2020 by the University of Alabama Press, details his 30-year program of research on deception leading to the development and testing of Truth-Default Theory.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2022 Truth-default theory and the psychology of lying and deception detectionCurrent Opinion in Psychology.  47. 2022
    2022 Content, context, cues, and demeanor in deception detectionFrontiers in Psychology.  13. 2022
    2022 Influence and personality: relationships among superdiffuser traits and big five traitsCommunication Quarterly.  70:63-83. 2022
    2022 Sender and Receiver Lie Frequencies and Motives: Testing Predictions from Truth-Default TheorySouthern Communication Journal.  87:220-234. 2022
    2022 The Number of Senders and Total Judgments Matter More Than Sample Size in Deception-Detection ExperimentsPerspectives on Psychological Science.  17:191-204. 2022
    2022 Unpacking variation in lie prevalence: Prolific liars, bad lie days, or both?Communication Monographs.  89:307-331. 2022
    2021 Revenge is not blind: Testing the ability of retribution to justify dishonestyJudgment and Decision Making.  16:1525-1548. 2021
    2021 Distrust, False Cues, and Below-Chance Deception Detection Accuracy: Commentary on Stel et al. (2020) and Further Reflections on (Un)Conscious Lie Detection From the Perspective of Truth-Default TheoryFrontiers in Psychology.  12. 2021
    2021 Does information about the frequency of lying impact perceptions of honesty?North American Journal of Psychology.  23:193-208. 2021
    2021 A few prolific liars in Japan: Replication and the effects of Dark Triad personality traitsPLoS One.  16. 2021
    2021 It’s the Situation and Your Disposition: A Test of Two Honesty HypothesesSocial Psychological and Personality Science.  12:213-224. 2021
    2021 In search of Korean Outliars: “a few prolific liars” in South KoreaCommunication Research Reports.  38:206-215. 2021
    2021 Judgments of honest and deceptive communication in art forgery controversies: two field studies testing truth-default theory’s projected motive model in KoreaAsian Journal of Communication.  31:536-549. 2021
    2021 The Truth-Default and Video Clips: Testing the Limits of CredulityCommunication Studies.  72:133-145. 2021
    2020 Unresolved heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Combined construct invalidity, confounding, and other challenges to understanding mean effect sizesHuman Communication Research.  46:343-354. 2020
    2020 Teaching Students About Sender and Receiver Variability in Lie DetectionTeaching of Psychology.  47:84-91. 2020
    2019 Documenting the truth-default: The low frequency of spontaneous unprompted veracity assessments in deception detectionHuman Communication Research.  45:286-308. 2019
    2019 Five reasons why i am skeptical that indirect or unconscious lie detection is superior to direct deception detectionFrontiers in Psychology.  10. 2019
    2019 How Custom Agents Really Detect LiesCommunication Research Reports.  36:84-92. 2019
    2018 The Role of Consistency in Detecting Deception: The Superiority of Correspondence over CoherenceCommunication Studies.  69:483-498. 2018
    2018 Differences and Similarities Between Koreans and Americans in Lying and Truth-TellingJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  37:562-577. 2018
    2018 A critical look at meta-analytic evidence for the cognitive approach to lie detection: A re-examination of Vrij, Fisher, and Blank (2017)Legal and Criminological Psychology.  23:7-19. 2018
    2018 Ecological validity and deception detection research designCommunication Methods and Measures.  12:45-54. 2018
    2018 Scientific Evidence and Cue Theories in Deception Research: Reconciling Findings From Meta-Analyses and Primary ExperimentsInternational Journal of Communication.  12:2461-2479. 2018
    2017 The Research of James C. McCroskey: A Personal and Professional RemembranceCommunication Research Reports.  34:376-380. 2017
    2017 The Intertwined Model of Reactance for Resistance and Persuasive BoomerangCommunication Research.  44:931-951. 2017
    2017 The effects of truth–lie base-rates on deception detection accuracy in KoreaAsian Journal of Communication.  27:554-562. 2017
    2017 Strong Diagnostic Questioning Effects on Deception Detection Accuracy With U.S. Customs AgentsCommunication Research Reports.  34:84-87. 2017
    2016 Examining sender and judge variability in honesty assessments and deception detection accuracy: Evidence for a transparent liar but no evidence of deception-general abilityCommunication Research Reports.  33:188-194. 2016
    2016 Toward a Pan-cultural Typology of Deception MotivesJournal of Intercultural Communication Research.  45:1-12. 2016
    2015 New and improved accuracy findings in deception detection researchCurrent Opinion in Psychology.  6:1-5. 2015
    2015 Base Rates, Deception Detection, and Deception Theory: A Reply to Burgoon (2015)Human Communication Research.  41:350-366. 2015
    2015 Producing deception detection expertisePolicing: an international journal of police strategies and management.  38:71-85. 2015
    2015 A Few Prolific Liars: Variation in the Prevalence of LyingJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  34:138-157. 2015
    2015 Two studies examining the error theory underlying the measurement model of the verbal aggressiveness scaleHuman Communication Research.  41:55-81. 2015
    2014 Message Characteristics in Online Product Reviews and Consumer Ratings of HelpfulnessSouthern Communication Journal.  79:468-483. 2014
    2014 Direct and Indirect Measures of Lie Detection Tell the Same Story: A Reply to ten Brinke, Stimson, and Carney (2014)Psychological Science.  25:1960-1961. 2014
    2014 Active Deception DetectionPolicy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences.  1:122-128. 2014
    2014 Expertise in deception detection involves actively prompting diagnostic information rather than passive behavioral observationHuman Communication Research.  40:442-462. 2014
    2014 Diagnostic Utility: Experimental Demonstrations and Replications of Powerful Question Effects in High-Stakes Deception DetectionHuman Communication Research.  40:262-289. 2014
    2014 An Introduction to Advances in Deception TheoryJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  33:345-347. 2014
    2014 The Effects of Truth-Lie Base Rate on Interactive Deception Detection AccuracyHuman Communication Research.  40:350-372. 2014
    2014 Theorizing About DeceptionJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  33:431-440. 2014
    2014 Truth-Default Theory (TDT): A Theory of Human Deception and Deception DetectionJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  33:378-392. 2014
    2013 Sharing Good and Bad News with Friends and Strangers: Reasons for and Communication Behaviors Associated with the MUM EffectCommunication Studies.  64:431-452. 2013
    2013 A Defense of Publishing Nonsignificant (ns) ResultsCommunication Research Reports.  30:270-274. 2013
    2013 Comparing Separate Process and Intertwined Models for ReactanceCommunication Studies.  64:273-295. 2013
    2013 Teenagers Lie a Lot: A Further Investigation into the Prevalence of LyingCommunication Research Reports.  30:211-220. 2013
    2013 The Impact of Accusatory, Non-Accusatory, Bait, and False Evidence Questioning on Deception DetectionCommunication Research Reports.  30:169-174. 2013
    2012 The gap between reality and research: Another look at detecting deception in field settingsPolicing: an international journal of police strategies and management.  35:723-740. 2012
    2012 The Effect of Prenatal Sex Hormones on the Development of Verbal AggressionJournal of Communication.  62:778-793. 2012
    2012 The unidimensional relationship closeness scale (URCS): Reliability and validity evidence for a new measure of relationship closenessPsychological Assessment.  24:565-572. 2012
    2012 Exploring Social Norms as a Group-Level Phenomenon: Do Political Participation Norms Exist and Influence Political Participation on College Campuses?Journal of Communication.  62:532-552. 2012
    2012 When Do People Misrepresent Themselves to Others? The Effects of Social Desirability, Ground Truth, and Accountability on Deceptive Self-PresentationsJournal of Communication.  62:400-417. 2012
    2012 A meta-analysis of trait-behavior correlations in argumentativeness and verbal aggressionJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  31:95-111. 2012
    2012 Individual and cultural variations in direct communication styleInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations.  36:179-187. 2012
    2012 The Problems With Some Means: Cautionary Advice Regarding Reporting and Interpreting Averages in Communication ResearchCommunication Research Reports.  29:80-85. 2012
    2011 Sender demeanor: Individual differences in sender believability have a powerful impact on deception detection judgmentsHuman Communication Research.  37:377-403. 2011
    2011 The Effect of Suspicion on Deception Detection Accuracy: Optimal Level or Opposing Effects?Communication Reports.  24:51-62. 2011
    2011 Statistical Conclusions Validity Basics: Probability and How Type 1 and Type 2 Errors Obscure the Interpretation of Findings in Communication Research LiteraturesCommunication Research Reports.  28:115-119. 2011
    2010 Online language: The role of culture in self-expression and self-construal on facebookJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  29:425-442. 2010
    2010 The impact of lie to me on viewers' actual ability to detect deceptionCommunication Research.  37:847-856. 2010
    2010 Breaking Good and Bad News: Direction of the MUM Effect and Senders' Cognitive Representations of News ValenceCommunication Research.  37:703-722. 2010
    2010 People lie for a reason: Three experiments documenting the principle of veracityCommunication Research Reports.  27:271-285. 2010
    2010 Content in context improves deception detection accuracyHuman Communication Research.  36:423-442. 2010
    2010 Assessing deception detection accuracy with dichotomous truth-lie judgments and continuous scaling: Are people really more accurate when honesty is scaled?Communication Research Reports.  27:112-122. 2010
    2010 Increasing deception detection accuracy with strategic questioningHuman Communication Research.  36:216-231. 2010
    2010 (In)accuracy at detecting true and false confessions and denials: An initial test of a projected motive model of veracity judgmentsHuman Communication Research.  36:82-102. 2010
    2010 Rankings and trends in citation patterns of communication journalsCommunication Education.  59:41-51. 2010
    2010 The prevalence of lying in America: Three studies of self-reported liesHuman Communication Research.  36:2-25. 2010
    2009 A multitrait-multimethod validity assessment of the verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness scalesCommunication Monographs.  76:443-462. 2009
    2009 The relationship between cheating behavior and sensation-seekingPersonality and Individual Differences.  47:944-947. 2009
    2009 Sample sizes and effect sizes are negatively correlated in meta-analyses: Evidence and implications of a publication bias against nonsignificant findingsCommunication Monographs.  76:286-302. 2009
    2009 Scaring the already scared: Some problems with HIV/AIDS fear appeals in NamibiaJournal of Communication.  59:317-344. 2009
    2009 Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship 2009
    2009 Can't live with them or can't live without them?: The effects of betrayal on relational outcomes in college dating relationshipsCommunication Quarterly.  57:187-204. 2009
    2009 High Detection Rates of Colorectal Neoplasia by Stool DNA Testing With a Novel Digital Melt Curve AssayGastroenterology.  136:459-470. 2009
    2008 The language of truthful and deceptive denials and confessionsCommunication Reports.  21:82-91. 2008
    2008 A communication researchers' guide to null hypothesis significance testing and alternativesHuman Communication Research.  34:188-209. 2008
    2008 A critical assessment of null hypothesis significance testing in quantitative communication researchHuman Communication Research.  34:171-187. 2008
    2008 Lie acceptability: A construct and measureCommunication Research Reports.  25:282-288. 2008
    2007 Some conceptual and theoretical challenges for cross-cultural communication research in the 21st centuryJournal of Intercultural Communication Research.  36:205-221. 2007
    2007 Testing public anxiety treatments against a credible placebo controlCommunication Education.  56:72-88. 2007
    2007 The effects of argument quality and involvement type on attitude formation and attitude change: A test of dual-process and social judgment predictionsHuman Communication Research.  33:81-102. 2007
    2007 The effects of the even-a-few-minutes-would-help strategy, perspective taking, and empathic concern on the successful recruiting of volunteers on campusCommunication Research Reports.  24:177-184. 2007
    2006 The lying chicken and the gaze avoidant Egg: Eye contact, deception, and causal orderSouthern Communication Journal.  71:401-411. 2006
    2006 Deception detection accuracy is a predictable linear function of message veracity base-rate: A formal test of park and levine's probability modelCommunication Monographs.  73:243-260. 2006
    2006 Dogmatism updated: A scale revision and validationCommunication Quarterly.  54:275-291. 2006
    2006 Interaction-based diversity initiative outcomes: An evaluation of an initiative aimed at bridging the racial divide on a college campusCommunication Education.  55:105-121. 2006
    2006 Love styles and communication in relationships: Partner preferences, initiation, and intensificationCommunication Quarterly.  54:465-486. 2006
    2006 The desirability of using confirmatory factor analysis on published scalesCommunication Research Reports.  23:309-314. 2006
    2005 Tests of a theory of communicative responsibilityJournal of Language and Social Psychology.  24:358-381. 2005
    2005 Testing the effects of nonverbal behavior training on accuracy in deception detection with the inclusion of a bogus training control groupWestern Journal of Communication.  69:203-217. 2005
    2005 A multimethod multitrait validity assessment of self-construal in Japan, Korea, and the United StatesHuman Communication Research.  31:33-59. 2005
    2005 Confirmatory factor analysis and scale validation in communication researchCommunication Research Reports.  22:335-338. 2005
    2004 The dimensionality of the verbal aggressiveness scaleCommunication Monographs.  71:245-268. 2004
    2004 Narcissism and empathy as predictors of obsessive relational intrusionCommunication Research Reports.  21:379-390. 2004
    2004 Self-construal as a predictor of communal and exchange orientation in Taiwan and the USAAsian Journal of Social Psychology.  7:187-203. 2004
    2004 The accurate reporting of software‐generated p‐values: A cautionary research noteCommunication Research Reports.  21:324-327. 2004
    2003 Self-construal scales lack validityHuman Communication Research.  29:210-252. 2003
    2003 Self‐Construal Scales Lack ValidityHuman Communication Research.  29:210-252. 2003
    2003 The (In)validity of Self‐Construal Scales RevisitedHuman Communication Research.  29:291-308. 2003
    2003 The (in)validity of self-construal scales revisitedHuman Communication Research.  29:291-308. 2003
    2003 The overestimation of effect sizes from F values in meta-analysis: The cause and a solutionCommunication Monographs.  70:52-67. 2003
    2003 The relative impact of violation type and lie severity on judgments of message deceitfulnessCommunication Research Reports.  20:208-218. 2003
    2002 Eta Squared, Partial Eta Squared, and Misreporting of Effect Size in Communication ResearchHuman Communication Research.  28:612-625. 2002
    2002 Eta Squared, Partial Eta Squared, and Misreporting of Effect Size in Communication ResearchHuman Communication Research.  28:612-625. 2002
    2002 Introduction: Statistical and Methodological Issues in Communication ResearchHuman Communication Research.  28:471. 2002
    2002 Statistical and Methodological Issues in Communication ResearchHuman Communication Research.  28:471-471. 2002
    2002 The High Cost of Complexity in Experimental Design and Data Analysis Type I and Type II Error Rates in Multiway ANOVAHuman Communication Research.  28:515-530. 2002
    2002 To stay or to leave? The role of attachment styles in communication patterns and potential termination of romantic relationships following discovery of deceptionCommunication Monographs.  69:236-252. 2002
    2002 What can we learn from the study of twins about genetic and environmental influences on interpersonal affiliation, aggressiveness, and social anxiety?: A meta-analytic studyCommunication Monographs.  69:1-18. 2002
    2002 Group and individual accuracy in deception detectionCommunication Research Reports.  19:99-106. 2002
    2002 How people really detect liesCommunication Monographs.  69:144-157. 2002
    2002 One-tailed F-tests in communication researchCommunication Monographs.  69:132-143. 2002
    2001 Behavioral Adaptation, Confidence, and Heuristic‐Based Explanations of the Probing EffectHuman Communication Research.  27:471-502. 2001
    2001 Behavioral adaptation, confidence, and heuristic-based explanations of the probing effectHuman Communication Research.  27:471-502. 2001
    2001 A probability model of accuracy in deception detection experimentsCommunication Monographs.  68:201-210. 2001
    2001 The effects of power and message variables on complianceCommunication Monographs.  68:28-48. 2001
    2001 Dichotomous and continuous views of deception: A reexamination of deception ratings in information manipulation theoryCommunication Research Reports.  18:230-240. 2001
    2000 Sexual motives, gender, and sexual behavior 2000
    2000 Norms, expectations, and deception: A norm violation model of veracity judgmentsCommunication Monographs.  67:123-137. 2000
    2000 Culture and information manipulation theory: The effects of self‐construal and locus of benefit on information manipulationCommunication Studies.  51:55-73. 2000
    1999 Accuracy in detecting truths and lies: Documenting the "veracity effect"Communication Monographs.  66:125-144. 1999
    1999 Information manipulation theory and perceptions of deception in Hong KongCommunication Reports.  21:1-11. 1999
    1999 The theory of reasoned action and self-construal: Evidence from three culturesCommunication Monographs.  66:199-218. 1999
    1998 Modeling the psychometric properties of information manipulation ratingsCommunication Research Reports.  15:218-225. 1998
    1998 The theory of reasoned action and self-construals: Understanding recycling in hawai'iCommunication Studies.  49:196-208. 1998
    1997 Resisting compliance in the multicultural classroomCommunication Education.  46:29-43. 1997
    1997 Situational intimacy as a predictor of compliance-gaining tactic selectionCommunication Research Reports.  14:132-144. 1997
    1996 Further Thoughts on Recall, Memory, and the Measurement of Listening A Rejoinder to BostromHuman Communication Research.  23:306-308. 1996
    1996 Gender, love schemas, and reactions to romantic break-upsJournal of social behavior and personality.  11:143-160. 1996
    1996 Speaking of information manipulation: A critical rejoinerCommunication Monographs.  63:83-92. 1996
    1996 A critical analysis of the behavioral adaptation explanation of the probing effectHuman Communication Research.  22:575-588. 1996
    1996 Attributions of deception as a function of reward value: A test of two explanationsCommunication Quarterly.  44:478-486. 1996
    1996 Can behavioral adaptation explain the probing effect? Rejoinder to Buller et al.Human Communication Research.  22:604-613. 1996
    1996 The impact of self and others' argumentativeness on talk about controversial issuesCommunication Quarterly.  44:345-358. 1996
    1995 The Impact of Power on Communicative Persistence, Strategic Diversity and Bargaining OutcomesCommunication Reports.  8:136-144. 1995
    1994 Ethnic and Gender Differences in Opening LinesCommunication Research Reports.  11:143-151. 1994
    1994 Disentangling Listening and Verbal Recall Related But Separate Constructs?Human Communication Research.  21:103-127. 1994
    1994 DO INDIVIDUALS MAKE INTERVAL RATIO LEVEL RESPONSES TO MAGNITUDE SCALED ITEMSJournal of social behavior and personality.  9:377-386. 1994
    1993 The Impact of Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness on Strategic Diversity and Persistence in Compliance-Gaining BehaviorCommunication Quarterly.  41:405-414. 1993
    1993 Argumentativeness and Resistance to PersuasionCommunication Reports.  6:71-78. 1993
    1993 The Influence of Perceived Source Reward Value on Attributions of DeceptionCommunication Research Reports.  10:15-27. 1993
    1992 Sex Differences in Emotional Reactions to Discovered DeceptionCommunication Quarterly.  40:289-296. 1992
    1992 Linking Love and Lies: A Formal Test of the Mccornack and Parks Model of Deception DetectionJournal of Social and Personal Relationships.  9:143-154. 1992
    1992 When the alteration of information is viewed as deception: An empirical test of information manipulation theoryCommunication Monographs.  59:17-29. 1992
    1991 The Dark Side of Trust: Conceptualizing and Measuring Types of Communicative SuspicionCommunication Quarterly.  39:325-340. 1991
    1991 Defecting and Assessing Statistical Interactions with Multiple RegressionCommunication Research Reports.  8:23-31. 1991
    1990 When lies are uncovered: Emotional and relational outcomes of discovered deceptionCommunication Monographs.  57:119-138. 1990
    1990 Measuring Trait Communication Apprehension: A Test Of Rival Measurement Models Of The Prca-24Communication Monographs.  57:62-72. 1990
    1990 Cross‐situational consistency and use/nonuse tendencies in compliance‐gaining tactic selectionSouthern Communication Journal.  56:1-11. 1990
    1990 When lovers become leery: The relationship between suspicion and accuracy in detecting deceptionCommunication Monographs.  57:219-230. 1990
    1988 Individual Differences and Compliance Gaining Message Selection: The Effects of Verbal Aggressivencess, Argumentativeness, Dogmatism, and NegativismCommunication Research Reports.  5:114-119. 1988


    Year Title Altmetric
    2019 Duped Truth-Default Theory and the Social Science of Lying and Deception 2019


    Year Title Altmetric
    2021 Truth-Default Theory: Changing Our Understanding of Human Deception.  403-413. 2021
    2020 Applied Deception Detection.  693-705. 2020
    2019 An overview of detecting deceptive communication.  289-301. 2019
    2019 Persuasion.  261-275. 2019
    2018 Lying and Deception in Close Relationships.  329-340. 2018
    2015 New Findings in Non-Verbal Lie Detection.  37-58. 2015
    2010 Friends with Benefits:: A Precarious Negotiation.  91-102. 2010
    2010 Measuring argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness: Psychometric concerns and advances.  67-81. 2010
    2010 Advances in deception detection.  201-220. 2010
    2009 Some considerations for a new theory of deceptive communication.  16-34. 2009

    Research Overview

  • deception, interpersonal communication, persuasion and social influence, experimental research design, measurement validation, and statistical conclusions validity
  • Teaching Activities

  • CM601 - Foundations of Comm Mgmt (Fall Term 2021)
  • CM618 - Communications Indep Stdy (Spring Term 2019)
  • CM618 - Communications Indep Stdy (Summer Term 2018)
  • CM620 - Persuasion (Fall Term 2018)
  • CM622 - Inter Comm & Relationships (Spring Term 2017)
  • CM623 - Deception (Fall Term 2020)
  • CM623 - Deception (Spring Term 2023)
  • CM624 - ST in Comm Theory & Research (Fall Term 2016)
  • CM624 - ST in Comm Theory & Research (Spring Term 2018)
  • CM630 - Seminar in Research Classics (Summer Term 2021)
  • CM694 - Quantitative Comm Research (Fall Term 2015)
  • CM694 - Quantitative Comm Research (Fall Term 2019)
  • CM694 - Quantitative Comm Research (Fall Term 2022)
  • CM694 - Quantitative Comm Research (Fall Term 2022)
  • CM694 - Quantitative Comm Research (Spring Term 2018)
  • CM694 - Quantitative Comm Research (Spring Term 2021)
  • CMST105 - Intro to Human Communication (Fall Term 2017)
  • CMST105 - Intro to Human Communication (Fall Term 2019)
  • CMST105 - Intro to Human Communication (Fall Term 2021)
  • CMST105 - Intro to Human Communication (Fall Term 2022)
  • CMST105 - Intro to Human Communication (Spring Term 2021)
  • CMST255 - Intro to Political Camp Comm (Fall Term 2020)
  • CMST321 - Persuasion Communication (Fall Term 2018)
  • CMST321 - Persuasion Communication (Spring Term 2017)
  • CMST321 - Persuasion Communication (Spring Term 2020)
  • CMST323 - Deception (Spring Term 2020)
  • CMST323 - Deception (Spring Term 2022)
  • CMST326 - Sports in the Mass Media (Fall Term 2020)
  • CMST425 - Comm in Soc & Pers Relation (Fall Term 2016)
  • CMST492 - Independent Study (Spring Term 2017)
  • CMST493 - Spec Topics Comm Studies (Fall Term 2015)
  • CMST493 - Spec Topics Comm Studies (Spring Term 2016)
  • CMST494 - Communication Research Methods (Fall Term 2017)
  • CMST494 - Communication Research Methods (Spring Term 2019)
  • HC116 - Honors Seminar SBS (Fall Term 2016)
  • HC116 - Honors Seminar SBS (Fall Term 2017)
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Communication, Journalism, and Related Programs, Michigan State University 1992
  • Full Name

  • Timothy Levine