• Dr. Raman’s laboratory interrogates molecular and cellular mechanisms driving the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases with a special emphasis on multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Within this are of research, the current studies focus on molecular mechanisms underlying activation and differentiation of effector T cells, B cells and innate cells in the pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases. Current investigations involve human immunology bridged with mouse models to study RA and MS. The major area of investigation is immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. We have several interrelated projects in this area of investigation:

    i. Type 1 IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) and type 2 IFN (IFN-γ) in pathogenesis and regulation of MS and RA – Our studies primarily focuses on outcomes of signaling from the IFN receptors in different innate and adaptive immune cell populations. Our immunopathogenic mechanism driving progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) that involves human studies and the mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    ii. Molecular mechanisms by which CK2 and GSK3 modulates effector and regulatory cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

    iii. Role of CD5 in T cell and B-1a B cell development, differentiation, immunity and pathogenesis – the laboratory focuses on B-1a B cell-dependent T-independent antibody responses, T-dependent antibody responses, autoreactive B-cell generation and persistence and regulatory B-cells. For these studies, the Raman laboratory has generated unique knock-in CD5 mutant mice in which signaling domains associated with CD5-inhibitory activity (ITIM) and CD5-CK2 activation have been ablated.

    iv. TGFβR3/betaglycan dependent regulation of adaptive immune effector cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2023 Transforming growth factor receptor III (Betaglycan) regulates the generation of pathogenic Th17 cells in EAEFrontiers in Immunology.  14. 2023
    2022 Neuroendocrine signaling in the skin with a special focus on the epidermal neuropeptides 2022
    2022 Novel CYP11A1-Derived Vitamin D and Lumisterol Biometabolites for the Management of COVID-19Nutrients.  14. 2022
    2022 How a Formate Dehydrogenase Responds to Oxygen: Unexpected O2Insensitivity of an Enzyme Harboring Tungstopterin, Selenocysteine, and [4Fe-4S] ClustersACS Catalysis.  12:10449-10471. 2022
    2022 Advances in molecular pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa: Dysregulated keratins and ECM signalingSeminars in Cell and Developmental Biology.  128:120-129. 2022
    2022 Metabolic activation of tachysterol3 to biologically active hydroxyderivatives that act on VDR, AhR, LXRs, and PPARγ receptors 2022
    2022 Ex Vivo Culture Models of Hidradenitis Suppurativa for Defining Molecular Pathogenesis and Treatment Efficacy of Novel DrugsInflammation.  45:1388-1401. 2022
    2022 Molecular and structural basis of interactions of vitamin D3 hydroxyderivatives with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR): An integrated experimental and computational studyInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules.  209:1111-1123. 2022
    2022 Chemical synthesis, biological activities and action on nuclear receptors of 20S(OH)D3, 20S,25(OH)2D3, 20S,23S(OH)2D3 and 20S,23R(OH)2D3Bioorganic Chemistry.  121. 2022
    2022 Melanoma, Melanin, and Melanogenesis: The Yin and Yang RelationshipFrontiers in Oncology.  12. 2022
    2022 Type I Interferons Enhance the Repair of Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Regulate Cutaneous Immune SuppressionInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences.  23. 2022
    2022 Vitamin D3 and its hydroxyderivatives as promising drugs against COVID-19: a computational studyJournal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics.  40:11594-11610. 2022
    2021 Editorial: Steroids and Secosteroids in the Modulation of Inflammation and ImmunityFrontiers in Immunology.  12. 2021
    2021 Dysregulated follicular regulatory T cells and antibody responses exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisJournal of Neuroinflammation.  18. 2021
    2021 Vitamin D and lumisterol derivatives can act on liver X receptors (LXRs)Scientific Reports.  11. 2021
    2021 Vitamin D and lumisterol novel metabolites can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery enzymes 2021
    2021 The significance of CYP11A1 expression in skin physiology and pathologyMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology.  530. 2021
    2021 Decreased Levels of STAT1 and Interferon-γ–Induced STAT1 Phosphorylation in Rheumatoid Arthritis CD4 and CD8 T CellsACR Open Rheumatology.  3:277-283. 2021
    2021 UVBstimulatesproductionofenkephalinsandother neuropeptides by skin-resident cells 2021
    2021 Diminished cytokine-induced Jak/STAT signaling is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and disease activityPLoS One.  16. 2021
    2020 Hydroxylumisterols, photoproducts of pre-vitamin d3, protect human keratinocytes against uvb-induced damageInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences.  21:1-18. 2020
    2020 GSK3β inhibition restores cortical gamma oscillation and cognitive behavior in a mouse model of NMDA receptor hypofunction relevant to schizophreniaNeuropsychopharmacology.  45:2207-2218. 2020
    2020 The tetraspanin CD151 marks a unique population of activated human T cellsScientific Reports.  10. 2020
    2020 COVID-19 and Vitamin D: A lesson from the skinExperimental Dermatology.  29:885-890. 2020
    2020 CYP11A1-derived vitamin D3 products protect against UVB-induced inflammation and promote keratinocytes differentiationFree Radical Biology and Medicine.  155:87-98. 2020
    2020 Reply to Jakovac and to Rocha et al.: Can vitamin D prevent or manage COVID-19 illness? 2020
    2020 Photoprotective Properties of Vitamin D and Lumisterol HydroxyderivativesCell Biochemistry and Biophysics.  78:165-180. 2020
    2020 Extra-adrenal glucocorticoid biosynthesis: implications for autoimmune and inflammatory disordersGenes and Immunity.  21:150-168. 2020
    2020 Neutrophil-derived S100A8/A9 amplify granulopoiesis after myocardial infarctionCirculation.  1080-1094. 2020
    2019 CD5 on dendritic cells regulates CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation and induction of immune responsesPLoS One.  14. 2019
    2017 TβRIII is induced by TCR signaling and downregulated in FoxP3+ regulatory T cellsBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.  494:82-87. 2017
    2016 CD5-CK2 signaling modulates ERK activation and thymocyte survivalPLoS One.  11. 2016
    2016 A Potential Structural Switch for Regulating DNA-Binding by TEAD Transcription FactorsJournal of Molecular Biology.  428:2557-2568. 2016
    2016 Apigenin, a Natural Flavonoid, Attenuates EAE Severity Through the Modulation of Dendritic Cell and Other Immune Cell FunctionsJournal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.  11:36-47. 2016
    2015 Functional requirement of tyrosine residue 429 within CD5 cytoplasmic domain for regulation of T cell activation and survivalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.  466:381-387. 2015
    2015 Inhibition of system Xc- transporter attenuates autoimmune inflammatory demyelinationJournal of Immunology.  195:450-463. 2015
    2015 Brief report: Expression of interferon-γ receptor genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its radiographic severity in african americansArthritis and Rheumatology.  67:1165-1170. 2015
    2015 MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysmsAmerican Journal of Human Genetics.  96:170-177. 2015
    2014 Transgenic expression of soluble human CD5 enhances experimentally-induced autoimmune and anti-tumoral immune responsesPLoS One.  9. 2014
    2014 CD5 enhances Th17-cell differentiation by regulating IFN-γ response and RORγt localizationEuropean Journal of Immunology.  44:1137-1142. 2014
    2014 Therapeutic efficacy of suppressing the JAK/STAT pathway in multiple models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisJournal of Immunology.  192:59-72. 2014
    2013 The interdependent, overlapping, and differential roles of type i and II IFNs in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisJournal of Immunology.  191:2967-2977. 2013
    2013 MHCII is required for α-Synuclein-induced activation of microglia, CD4 T cell proliferation, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration 2013
    2013 Type i interferons: Beneficial in Th1 and detrimental in Th17 autoimmunityClinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology.  44:114-120. 2013
    2013 The carboxy-terminal region of CD5 is required for c-CBL mediated TCR signaling downmodulation in thymocytesBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.  432:52-59. 2013
    2012 Lithium Controls Central Nervous System Autoimmunity through Modulation of IFN-γ SignalingPLoS One.  7. 2012
    2012 Picosecond to second dynamics reveals a structural transition in clostridium botulinum no-sensor triggered by the activator BAY-41-2272ACS Chemical Biology.  7:2046-2054. 2012
    2012 CD5-dependent CK2 activation pathway regulates threshold for T Cell anergyJournal of Immunology.  189:2918-2930. 2012
    2012 Betaglycan (TβRIII) Is Expressed in the Thymus and Regulates T Cell Development by Protecting Thymocytes from ApoptosisPLoS One.  7. 2012
    2012 Janus-like effects of type I interferon in autoimmune diseasesImmunological Reviews.  248:23-35. 2012
    2012 Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3/suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (STAT3/SOCS3) axis in myeloid cells regulates neuroinflammation 2012
    2012 Serine phosphorylation of FcγRI cytoplasmic domain directs lipid raft localization and interaction with protein 4.1GJournal of Leukocyte Biology.  91:97-103. 2012
    2011 Green tea: A new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritisArthritis Research and Therapy.  13. 2011
    2011 Rescue of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from activation-induced cell death enhances the antitumor CTL response in CD5-deficient miceJournal of Immunology.  187:102-109. 2011
    2011 Pro-B cells sense productive immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement irrespective of polypeptide production 2011
    2011 Interferon-β exacerbates Th17-mediated inflammatory diseaseTrends in Immunology.  32:272-277. 2011
    2011 The immunomodulatory properties of the CD5 lymphocyte receptor in health and diseaseCurrent Opinion in Immunology.  23:310-318. 2011
    2011 The reaction mechanism of allene oxide synthase: Interplay of theoretical QM/MM calculations and experimental investigationsMolecular cell biology research communications : MCBRC.  507:14-25. 2011
    2010 Increased antigen responsiveness of naive CD8 T cells exposed to IL-7 and IL-21 is associated with decreased CD5 expressionImmunology and Cell Biology.  88:451-460. 2010
    2010 T helper type 1 and 17 cells determine efficacy of interferon-Β in multiple sclerosis and experimental encephalomyelitisNature Medicine.  16:406-412. 2010
    2010 Marginal zone precursor B cells as cellular agents for type I IFN-promoted antigen transport in autoimmunityJournal of Immunology.  184:442-451. 2010
    2009 The structures of indazolin-3-one (=1,2-dihydro-3H-indazol-3-one) and 7-nitroindazolin-3-oneHelvetica Chimica Acta.  92:1952-1962. 2009
    2009 Increased numbers of thymic and peripheral CD4+ CD25 +Foxp3+ cells in the absence of CD5 signalingEuropean Journal of Immunology.  39:2233-2247. 2009
    2009 Mutations in Smooth Muscle Alpha-Actin (ACTA2) Cause Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke, and Moyamoya Disease, Along with Thoracic Aortic DiseaseAmerican Journal of Human Genetics.  84:617-627. 2009
    2008 Structural insights into the evolutionary paths of oxylipin biosynthetic enzymesNature.  455:363-368. 2008
    2008 CD5 plays an inhibitory role in the suppressive function of murine CD4+ CD25+ Treg cellsImmunology Letters.  119:103-113. 2008
    2008 Corrigendum: Mutations in smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) lead to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (Nature Genetics (2007) 39, (1488-1493))Nature Genetics.  40:255. 2008
    2008 Erratum: MYH11 mutations result in a distinct vascular pathology driven by insulin-like growth factor1 and angiotensin II (Human Molecular Genetics (2007) vol. 16 (20) (2453-2462) 10.1093/hmg/ddm201)Human Molecular Genetics.  17:158. 2008
    2008 Lithium prevents and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisJournal of Immunology.  181:338-345. 2008
    2007 Mutations in smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) lead to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissectionsNature Genetics.  39:1488-1493. 2007
    2007 MYH11 mutations result in a distinct vascular pathology driven by insulin-like growth factor 1 and angiotensin IIHuman Molecular Genetics.  16:2453-2462. 2007
    2007 Efficient synthesis of 7-substituted or 3,7-disubstituted 1H-indazoles 2007
    2007 A new mutation within the porphobilinogen deaminase gene leading to a truncated protein as a cause of acute intermittent porphyria in an extended indian familyFolia biologica.  53:194-201. 2007
    2006 CD5-CK2 binding/activation-deficient mice are resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Protection is associated with diminished populations of IL-17-expressing T cells in the central nervous systemJournal of Immunology.  177:8542-8549. 2006
    2006 Analogies and surprising differences between recombinant nitric oxide synthase-like proteins from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis in their interactions with l-arginine analogs and iron ligandsJournal of Inorganic Biochemistry.  100:2024-2033. 2006
    2006 De novo mutation found in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in Slovak acute intermittent porphyria patient: Molecular biochemical studyPhysiological Research.  55. 2006
    2006 Dynamics of NO rebinding to the heme domain of NO synthase-like proteins from bacterial pathogensNitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry.  15:312-327. 2006
    2005 Requirement of the Fc receptor common γ-chain for γδ T cell-mediated promotion of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisEuropean Journal of Immunology.  35:3487-3492. 2005
    2005 Critical requirement of CD11b (Mac-1) on T cells and accessory cells for development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisJournal of Immunology.  175:6327-6333. 2005
    2005 Structural basis of hereditary coproporphyria 2005
    2005 Mutations in transforming growth factor-β receptor type II cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissectionsCirculation.  112:513-520. 2005
    2004 Femtomolar sensitivity of a NO sensor from Clostridium botulinumScience.  306:1550-1553. 2004
    2004 Cutting edge: Critical role for CD5 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Inhibition of engagement reverses disease in miceJournal of Immunology.  173:2928-2932. 2004
    2004 A Redox-controlled Molecular Switch Revealed by the Crystal Structure of a Bacterial Heme PAS SensorJournal of Biological Chemistry.  279:20186-20193. 2004
    2004 Loss of LFA-1, but not Mac-1, protects MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice from autoimmune diseaseAmerican Journal of Pathology.  165:609-616. 2004
    2003 The B cell coreceptor CD22 associates with AP50, a clathrin-coated pit adapter protein, via tyrosine-dependent interactionJournal of Immunology.  170:3534-3543. 2003
    2002 CD5, an important regulator of lymphocyte selection and immune toleranceImmunologic Research.  26:255-263. 2002
    2002 AP2 adaptor complex-dependent internalization of CD5: Differential regulation in T and B cellsJournal of Immunology.  168:5612-5620. 2002
    2001 Structural basis for pterin antagonism in nitric-oxide synthase: Development of novel 4-oxo-pteridine antagonists of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterinJournal of Biological Chemistry.  276:49133-49141. 2001
    2001 Crystal structure of nitric oxide synthase bound to nitro indazole reveals a novel inactivation mechanismBiochemistry.  40:13448-13455. 2001
    2001 Implications for Isoform-selective Inhibitor Design Derived from the Binding Mode of Bulky Isothioureas to the Heme Domain of Endothelial Nitric-oxide SynthaseJournal of Biological Chemistry.  276:26486-26491. 2001
    2001 CD45 function is regulated by an acidic 19-amino acid insert in domain II that serves as a binding and phosphoacceptor site for casein kinase 2Journal of Immunology.  166:7208-7218. 2001
    2001 Crystallographic studies on endothelial nitric oxide synthase complexed with nitric oxide and mechanism-based inhibitorsBiochemistry.  40:5399-5406. 2001
    2000 Mapping the active site polarity in structures of endothelial nitric oxide synthase heme domain complexed with isothioureasJournal of Inorganic Biochemistry.  81:133-139. 2000
    2000 Antibody-detected folding: Kinetics of surface epitope formation are distinct from other folding phasesProtein Science.  9:129-137. 2000
    1999 Factors determining the selectivity of protein tyrosine nitrationMolecular cell biology research communications : MCBRC.  371:169-178. 1999
    1999 Crystal structures of zinc-free and -bound heme domain of human inducible nitric-oxide synthase. Implications for dimer stability and comparison with endothelial nitric-oxide synthaseJournal of Biological Chemistry.  274:21276-21284. 1999
    1999 Zinc content of Escherichia coli-expressed constitutive isoforms of nitric-oxide synthase. Enzymatic activity and effect of pterinJournal of Biological Chemistry.  274:14537-14540. 1999
    1999 Heme-mediated oxygen activation in biology: Cytochrome c oxidase and nitric oxide synthaseCurrent Opinion in Chemical Biology.  3:131-137. 1999
    1999 Isothermal titration calorimetry of protein-protein interactionsImmunoMethods.  19:213-221. 1999
    1998 The C331A mutant of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase is defective in arginine bindingJournal of Biological Chemistry.  273:34799-34805. 1998
    1998 Crystal structure of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase: A paradigm for pterin function involving a novel metal centerCell.  95:939-950. 1998
    1998 Cutting edge: Differential CD5-dependent regulation of CD5-associated CK2 activity in mature and immature T cells: Implication on TCR/CD3-mediated activationJournal of Immunology.  161:5817-5820. 1998
    1998 Differential CD5-dependent regulation of CD5-associated CK2 activity in mature and immature T cells: implication on TCR/CD3-mediated activation.Journal of Immunology.  161:5817-5820. 1998
    1998 Regulation of casein kinase 2 by direct interaction with cell surface receptor CD5Journal of Biological Chemistry.  273:19183-19189. 1998
    1998 CD5 regulates Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) by direct interaction with the holoenzyme 1998
    1998 Interaction of AP50 with the cytoplasmic domain of murine CD22.2 1998
    1998 NO news is good newsFolding & design.  6:255-258. 1998
    1997 CYS 331 of neuronal nitric oxide synthase is involved in L-arg binding rather than direct BH4 binding 1997
    1997 Human Ig heavy chain CDR3 regions in adult bone marrow pre-B cells display an adult phenotype of diversity: Evidence for structural selection of D(H) amino acid sequencesInternational Immunology.  9:1503-1515. 1997
    1997 Cloning and characterization of HUPF1, a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonsense mRNA-reducing UPF1 proteinNucleic Acids Research.  25:814-821. 1997
    1997 Human coproporphyrinogen oxidase. Biochemical characterization of recombinant normal and R231W mutated enzymes expressed in E. coli as soluble, catalytically active homodimers.Cellular and Molecular Biology.  43:47-58. 1997
    1997 Molecular mechanisms governing reading frame choice of immunoglobulin diversity genesTrends in Immunology.  18:37-43. 1997
    1995 Sequence of the rabbit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding cDNAGene.  163:325-326. 1995
    1995 Enthalpy of Antibody—Cytochrome c BindingBiochemistry.  34:5831-5838. 1995
    1995 High hydrostatic pressure induces the dissociation of cpn60 tetradecamers and reveals a plasticity of the monomersJournal of Biological Chemistry.  270:2061-2066. 1995
    1994 MPSA short communications 1994
    1994 Preferential V(H) gene usage in rabbit Ig-secreting heterohybridomasJournal of Immunology.  152:3935-3945. 1994
    1992 CD5+ B cells predominate in peripheral tissues of rabbitJournal of Immunology.  149:3858-3864. 1992
    1992 Diffusion-Limited Rates for Monoclonal Antibody Binding to Cytochrome cBiochemistry.  31:10370-10379. 1992
    1992 Identification and Cloning of Rabbit CD5Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  651:78-81. 1992
    1990 Evaluation of an elsa for the detection of anti‐histoplasma ribosomal and antihistoplasmin antibodies in histoplasmosisJournal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis.  4:199-207. 1990


    Year Title Altmetric
    2000 Structures of gas-generating heme enzymes: Nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase.  Ed. 51.  2000

    Education And Training

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology, Southern Illinois University System : Carbondale 1989
  • Full Name

  • Chander Raman