• Since 1997, Dr. Young has been Director of pancreas transplantation at UAB. A native of Pennsylvania, Dr. Young received his undergraduate degree from Villanova University. He then matriculated to medical school at Johns Hopkins, graduating in 1987. Dr. Young then returned to Philadelphia to complete his general surgical training at Thomas Jefferson University by 1993. He then spent two years at the University of Wisconsin as an abdominal transplant fellow. After graduation in 1995, he spent two years at the University of Arizona Medical Center where he performed the first simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant in the state. UAB became home in 1997. Since that time, aside from growing the kidney and pancreas transplant program, he assumed the directorship of the pediatric renal transplant program in 2011. That program has consistently been one of the top 10 centers for volume of transplants performed on children in the USA. Dr. Young has also been Assistant Dean for Medical Student Diversity and Inclusion at UAB School of Medicine since 2012. He has been actively involved in numerous transplant organizations and has served as Chair of the United Network of Organ Sharing Minority Affairs Committee. He also remains an ad hoc reviewer for the American Journal of Transplantation. Aside from these duties, Dr. Young has mentored numerous fellows, surgical residents, medical students and undergraduate students.

    Dr. Young’s interests include defining and addressing disparity in access to care as well as outcomes seen among minority populations. His clinical research focuses on kidney and pancreas transplant recipients. He is also involved in research pertaining to under-represented minorities in medicine, their access to and retention in medical school. Lastly, he has active clinical research pertaining to vascular access outcomes.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2022 Abnormal time-zero histology is predictive of kidney transplant outcomesClinical Transplantation.  36. 2022
    2022 Climate survey development to assess the DEI gap across surgical specialties in an academic institution 2022
    2021 Eplet mismatch scores and de novo donor-specific antibody development in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantationHuman Immunology.  82:139-146. 2021
    2020 Redefining the Influence of Ethnicity on Simultaneous Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation Outcomes: A 15-year Single-center ExperienceAnnals of Surgery.  271:177-183. 2020
    2019 Mitigating Racial and Sex Disparities in Access to Living Donor Kidney Transplantation: Impact of the Nation's Longest Single-center Kidney ChainAnnals of Surgery.  270:639-646. 2019
    2019 Clinical Outcomes and Economic Impact of Starting Hemodialysis with a Catheter after Predialysis Arteriovenous Fistula CreationAmerican Journal of Nephrology.  50:221-227. 2019
    2019 Mineral Metabolism Disturbances and Arteriovenous Fistula MaturationEuropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery.  57:719-728. 2019
    2018 Choice of a second vascular access in hemodialysis patients whose initial arteriovenous fistula failed to matureJournal of Vascular Surgery.  68:1858-1864.e1. 2018
    2018 Reducing the impact of violence on the health status of African-Americans: Literature review and recommendations from the Society of Black Academic Surgeons 2018
    2018 Decreasing deceased donor transplant rates among children (≤6 years) under the new kidney allocation systemAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  18:1690-1698. 2018
    2018 Relationships Between Clinical Processes and Arteriovenous Fistula Cannulation and Maturation: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort StudyAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  71:677-689. 2018
    2017 The clinical and economic effect of vascular access selection in patients initiating hemodialysis with a catheterJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  28:3679-3687. 2017
    2016 Predictors of initiation for predialysis arteriovenous fistulaClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  11:1802-1808. 2016
    2016 Outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas and grafts with or without intervention before successful useJournal of Vascular Surgery.  64:155-162. 2016
    2016 Arteriovenous Fistula Development in the First 6 Weeks after creationRadiology.  279:620-629. 2016
    2016 Preoperative vascular medial fibrosis and arteriovenous fistula developmentClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  11:1615-1623. 2016
    2015 First report on the OPTN national variance: Allocation of A2/A2B deceased donor kidneys to blood group B increases minority transplantationAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  15:3134-3142. 2015
    2015 Risk evaluation of immediate surgical failure during thigh hemodialysis graft placement by sonographic screeningJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine.  34:1613-1619. 2015
    2015 Preoperative arterial microcalcification and clinical outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysisAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  66:84-90. 2015
    2014 Endovascular treatment of pancreatic allograft transplant arteriovenous fistula using amplatzer vascular plug 2Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology.  37:819-824. 2014
    2013 Correlation of pre-existing vascular pathology with arteriovenous graft outcomes in hemodialysis patientsAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  62:1122-1129. 2013
    2013 Preoperative venous intimal hyperplasia, postoperative arteriovenous fistula stenosis, and clinical fistula outcomesClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  8:1750-1755. 2013
    2012 A response to child-to-parent donationa-consideration of age and ethnicityAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  12:503. 2012
    2011 African American living-kidney donors should be screened for apol1 risk allelesTransplantation.  92:722-725. 2011
    2011 Medial fibrosis, vascular calcification, intimal hyperplasia, and arteriovenous fistula maturationAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases.  58:437-443. 2011
    2011 Ethnic and gender related differences in the risk of end-stage renal disease after living kidney donationAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  11:1650-1655. 2011
    2010 Living donor nephrectomy: Understanding long-term risk in minority populationsAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  10:2574-2576. 2010
    2010 Access and outcomes among minority transplant patients, 1999-2008, with a focus on determinants of kidney graft survival: Special featureAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  10:1090-1107. 2010
    2009 Are there still roles for exocrine bladder drainage and portal venous drainage for pancreatic allografts?Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation.  14:90-94. 2009
    2009 Outcomes of brachiocephalic fistulas, transposed brachiobasilic fistulas, and upper arm graftsClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.  4:86-92. 2009
    2008 Systolic dysfunction portends increased mortality among those waiting for renal transplantJournal of the American Society of Nephrology.  19:1190-1196. 2008
    2008 Is surgical salvage of arteriovenous grafts feasible after unsuccessful percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy?Seminars in Dialysis.  21:174-177. 2008
    2007 Increased risk of infection associated with polyurethane dialysis graftsSeminars in Dialysis.  20:616-620. 2007
    2007 Steroid withdrawal in African American kidney transplant recipients: Long-term effects on graft outcomesNature Reviews Nephrology.  3:372-373. 2007
    2007 Racial Disparities in Renal Allograft Survival: A Public Health Issue?Journal of the American College of Surgeons.  204:894-902. 2007
    2007 Arteriovenous access outcomes in haemodialysis patients with HIV infectionNephrology Dialysis Transplantation.  22:465-470. 2007
    2005 Understanding the influence of ethnicity on renal allograft survivalAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  5:2603-2604. 2005
    2005 Health disparities in transplantation: Focus on the complexity and challenge of renal transplantation in African AmericansMedical Clinics of North America.  89:1003-1031. 2005
    2005 Emerging antibody therapy in organ transplantation.Journal of Surgical Education.  62. 2005
    2005 Retrograde stenting for obstruction of the renal transplant ureterUrology.  66:256-260. 2005
    2004 Activated protein C preserves functional islet mass after intraportal transplantation: A novel link between endothelial cell activation, thrombosis, inflammation, and islet cell deathDiabetes.  53:2804-2814. 2004
    2004 A novel approach to xenotransplantation combining surface engineering and genetic modification of isolated adult porcine isletsSurgery.  136:537-547. 2004
    2004 Enhanced isolated pancreatic islet recovery and functionality in rats by 17β-estradiol treatment of brain death donorsSurgery.  136:336-345. 2004
    2004 "High-risk" renal transplantation: evolving definitions at a single center.Clinical transplants.  121-126. 2004
    2004 Donor nephrectomy: A comparison of techniques and results of open, hand assisted and full laparoscopic nephrectomyInvestigative urology.  171:40-43. 2004
    2003 Brain Death Significantly Reduces Isolated Pancreatic Islet Yields and Functionality In Vitro and In Vivo after Transplantation in RatsDiabetes.  52:2935-2942. 2003
    2003 Peroxynitrite modulates acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) activityMolecular cell biology research communications : MCBRC.  419:178-189. 2003
    2003 Peripheral mobilization of recipient bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells enhances pancreatic islet revascularization and engraftment after intraportal transplantationSurgery.  134:390-398. 2003
    2003 Suppression of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway by 17β-estradiol can preserve human islet functional mass from proinflammatory cytokine-induced destructionSurgery.  134:169-179. 2003
    2003 Double genetic modification of adenovirus fiber with RGD polylysine motifs significantly enhances gene transfer to isoiated human pancreatic isletsTransplantation.  76:252-261. 2003
    2003 Coupling endoplasmic reticulum stress to cell death program in isolated human pancreatic islets: Effects of gene transfer of Bcl-2Transplant International.  16:537-542. 2003
    2002 17β-estradiol protects isolated human pancreatic islets against proinflammatory cytokine-induced cell death: Molecular mechanisms and islet functionalityTransplantation.  74:1252-1259. 2002
    2002 Simvastatin induces activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt and increases survival of isolated human pancreatic isletsTransplantation.  74:1063-1069. 2002
    2002 Hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula maturity: US evaluationRadiology.  225:59-64. 2002
    2002 Association of cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms with B7 costimulatory molecules in kidney allograft recipientsPediatric Transplantation.  6:69-77. 2002
    2002 African Americans and renal transplantation: Disproportionate need, limited access, and impaired outcomesAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  323:94-99. 2002
    2001 Effect of preoperative sonographic mapping on vascular access outcomes in hemodialysis patientsKidney International.  60:2013-2020. 2001
    2001 Increased dietary salt accelerates chronic allograft nephropathy in ratsKidney International.  59:1149-1157. 2001
    2000 Improved outcomes in cadaveric renal allografts with pulsatile preservationClinical Transplantation.  14:543-549. 2000
    2000 Renal transplantation in black AmericansNew England Journal of Medicine.  343:1545-1552. 2000
    2000 The safety and efficacy of a two-dose daclizumab (Zenapax) induction therapy in liver transplant recipientsTransplantation.  69:1867-1872. 2000
    2000 American society of transplant surgeons' position paper on adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantationLiver Transplantation.  6:815-817. 2000
    2000 Liver transplantation in the era of cost constraintsSouthern Medical Journal.  93:392-396. 2000
    2000 US vascular mapping before hemodialysis access placementRadiology.  217:83-88. 2000
    1998 Race: A critical factor in organ donation, patient referral and selection, and orthotopic liver transplantation?Liver Transplantation.  4:499-505. 1998
    1998 Renal retransplantation at the University of Alabama at Birmingham: incidence and outcome.Clinical transplants.  169-175. 1998
    1996 Preliminary experience with split liver transplantationJournal of the American College of Surgeons.  182:381-387. 1996
    1995 Pretransplant status and patient survival following liver transplantationTransplantation.  60:920-925. 1995
    1994 RS-61443: A new immunosuppressive agentTransplantation Proceedings.  26:3144-3146. 1994
    1994 Living-related and unrelated renal donation: the University of Wisconsin perspective.Clinical transplants.  362-363. 1994
    1994 Pancreas transplantationDigestive Surgery.  11:420-427. 1994


    Year Title Altmetric
    2005 Diabetic nephropathy.  399-425. 2005

    Research Overview

  • health disparities, disparities in access to care, outcomes among minority populations, kidney and pancreas transplantation, access to and retention of under-represented minorities in medicine, vascular access outcomes
  • Investigator On

  • A Randomized Trial of Fistula vs. Graft Arteriovenous Vascular Access in Older Adults with End-Stage Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis: The AV ACCESS Trial  awarded by WAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY
  • APOL1 Long-Term Kidney Transplantation Outcomes Network (APOLLO) Clinical Center  awarded by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases/NIH/DHHS
  • Barriers to Arteriovenous Fistula Use in Black Hemodialysis Patients  awarded by NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON MINORITY HEALTH AND HEALTH DISPARITIES/NIH/DHHS
  • Effects of Inhibiting Early Inflammation in Kidney Transplant Patients  awarded by ICAHN SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AT MOUNT SINAI
  • Effects of Inhibiting Early Inflammation in Kidney Transplant Patients - Equipment  awarded by Mount Sinai School of Medicine ^
  • HOPE in Action: A Clinical Trial of HIV-to-HIV Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation  awarded by Johns Hopkins University
  • Impact of CCR5 Blockade in HIV + Kidney Transplant Recipients  awarded by University of California, San Francisco
  • Impact of CCR5 Blockade in HIV+Kidney Transplant Recipients  awarded by University of California, San Francisco
  • Preserving Renal Function & Protective Immunity via Anti-LFA-1-Based CNI Avoidance  awarded by Emory University
  • Private Grant  awarded by CINKATE CORPORATION
  • Private Grant  awarded by ASTELLAS PHARMA US, INC.
  • Private Grant  awarded by PROTEON THERAPEUTICS, INC.
  • Private Grant  awarded by ALEXION PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
  • Private Grant  awarded by LUNG BIOTECHNOLOGY PBC
  • Private Grant  awarded by QUARK PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
  • Private Grant  awarded by PROTEON THERAPEUTICS, INC.
  • Private Grant  awarded by ASTELLAS PHARMA US, INC.
  • Private Grant  awarded by LUNG BIOTECHNOLOGY PBC
  • Vascular Abnormalities in Patients Receiving a Dialysis Access.  awarded by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases/NIH/DHHS
  • Education And Training

  • Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Residency
  • Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • Doctor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University 1987
  • Full Name

  • Carlton Young