• Carlos A. Estrada, MD, MS, is Chief of the Section of General Internal Medicine (GIM) at the Birmingham VAMC and Professor of Medicine, with tenure, and Director of the Division of General Internal Medicine, at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). He is also Associate Provost for Interprofessional Education and Director, Center for Interprofessional Education & Simulation at UAB.

    Estrada is a long-standing member of the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM), he chaired the 2009 National meeting and served on Council, Deputy Editor, and Editorial Board for the Journal of General Internal Medicine (JGIM). He also served as President of the Association of Chiefs and Leaders of General Internal Medicine (ACLGIM, 2018-2019).

    Dr. Estrada was a member of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME), USMLE Gross Anatomy & Embryology Test Material Development Committee (TMDC), United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). He served as member of the Editorial Board and Deputy Editor for The Journal of General Internal Medicine, CME Editor for ACP Medicine Chapter self-assessment program (American College of Physicians), and Editor of the Leadership Forum (Newsletter; Association of Chiefs and Leaders of General Internal Medicine, ACLGIM).

    A native of Peru, he trained at Henry Ford Hospital and the University of Michigan School of Public Health. Dr Estrada worked at East Carolina University before joining UAB.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2021 Creating Clinician Educators: Evaluation of a One-Month Medical Education Curriculum for Senior ResidentsAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  362:606-611. 2021
    2021 In Reply to GreenbergAcademic Medicine.  96:1499-1500. 2021
    2021 Are We Measuring What Matters? How Student and Clerkship Characteristics Influence Clinical GradingAcademic Medicine.  96:241-248. 2021
    2020 Sensitising medical students towards nurse-physician collaboration 2020
    2019 Which Student Characteristics Are Most Important in Determining Clinical Honors in Clerkships? A Teaching Ward Attending PerspectiveAcademic Medicine.  94:1581-1588. 2019
    2019 What Defines an Honors Student? Survey of Pediatric and Internal Medicine Faculty PerspectivesSouthern Medical Journal.  112:450-454. 2019
    2019 Clinical Reasoning Assessment Methods: A Scoping Review and Practical GuidanceAcademic Medicine.  94:902-912. 2019
    2019 Antithrombotic therapy after acute coronary syndrome or PCI in atrial fibrillationNew England Journal of Medicine.  380:1509-1524. 2019
    2019 Identifying High-Performing Students in Inpatient Clerkships: A Qualitative StudyMedical Science Educator.  29:199-204. 2019
    2019 Signed, Sealed, Delivered: Increasing Patient Notification of Test Results in an Internal Medicine Resident Continuity ClinicSouthern Medical Journal.  112:85-88. 2019
    2019 What Attracts Medical Students to Primary Care? A Nominal Group EvaluationSouthern Medical Journal.  112:76-82. 2019
    2018 Are All Teaching Activities Valued the Same? Their Relative Worth Is in the Eye of the BeholderSouthern Medical Journal.  111:465-469. 2018
    2018 Engagement in an online cultural competency trainingSouthern Medical Journal.  111:199-202. 2018
    2018 Exercises in Clinical Reasoning: Take a Time-Out and ReflectJournal of General Internal Medicine.  33:388-392. 2018
    2018 Analysis of the tonsillar microbiome in young adults with sore throat reveals a high relative abundance of Fusobacterium necrophorum with low diversityPLoS ONE.  13. 2018
    2017 First steps in improving blood pressure control among primary care hypertensive veterans utilizing quality improvement toolsAlabama Nurse.  44:19-22. 2017
    2017 Contextual influences of trainee characteristics and daily workload on trainee learning preferencesJournal of Hospital Medicine.  12:558-561. 2017
    2017 Physician Order Entry Clerical Support Improves Physician Satisfaction and ProductivitySouthern Medical Journal.  110:363-368. 2017
    2017 Lessons Learned from a Middle-Aged Man with Testicular Pain: Exercises in Clinical ReasoningJournal of General Internal Medicine.  32:355-359. 2017
    2017 Exercises in Clinical Reasoning: A RetrospectiveJournal of General Internal Medicine.  32:1-2. 2017
    2017 Preclinical Medical Student Note QualityAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  353:387-388. 2017
    2017 Sensitivity for Diagnosing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis from Manufacturers is 10% Higher than Reported in Peer-Reviewed PublicationsSouthern Medical Journal.  110:59-64. 2017
    2016 Empathy as a Diagnostic Tool in a 33-Year-Old Man with Eye Pain and Vision Loss: Exercises in Clinical ReasoningJournal of General Internal Medicine.  31:1389-1392. 2016
    2016 Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?Journal of graduate medical education.  8:180-184. 2016
    2016 Managing Cognitive Load to Uncover an Unusual Cause of Syncope: Exercises in Clinical ReasoningJournal of General Internal Medicine.  31:247-251. 2016
    2015 Sore Throat: Avoid Overcomplicating the UncomplicatedAnnals of Internal Medicine.  162:878. 2015
    2015 Sore throat: Avoid overcomplicating the uncomplicatedAnnals of Internal Medicine.  162:878. 2015
    2015 A web-based cultural competency training for medical students: A randomized trialAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  349:442-446. 2015
    2015 Impact of an educational intervention on provider knowledge, attitudes, and comfort level regarding counseling women ages 40–49 about breast cancer screeningJournal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.  8:209-216. 2015
    2015 To Lead or Not to Lead? Structure and Content of Leadership Development ProgramsJournal of General Internal Medicine.  30:543-545. 2015
    2015 The clinical presentation of Fusobacterium-positive and streptococcal-positive pharyngitis in a university health clinic: A cross-sectional studyAnnals of Internal Medicine.  162:241-247. 2015
    2014 Rapid Antigen Group A Streptococcus Test to Diagnose Pharyngitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisPLoS ONE.  9. 2014
    2014 Teaching behaviors that define highest rated attending physicians: A study of the resident perspectiveMedical Teacher.  36:991-996. 2014
    2014 Splenic infarcts associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromeJournal of General Internal Medicine.  29:541-542. 2014
    2014 A 22-year-old woman with abdominal painJournal of General Internal Medicine.  29:1074-1078. 2014
    2014 Documenting quality improvement and patient safety efforts: the quality portfolio. A statement from the academic hospitalist taskforce.Journal of General Internal Medicine.  29:214-218. 2014
    2014 Evaluation of an advanced physical diagnosis course using consumer preferences methods: The nominal group techniqueAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  347:199-205. 2014
    2014 Learning by doing: Observing an interprofessional process as an interprofessional teamJournal of Interprofessional Care.  28:249-251. 2014
    2013 A multimethod approach for cross-cultural training in an internal medicine residency programMedical education online: an electronic journal.  18. 2013
    2013 Nominal group technique: A tool for course evaluation 2013
    2013 A 76-year-old woman with diaphoresis and anxietyJournal of General Internal Medicine.  28:1376-1380. 2013
    2013 Bedside hand grip assessment with the sphygmomanometerJournal of General Internal Medicine.  28:1381. 2013
    2013 Clinical reasoning for the infectious disease specialist: A primer to recognize cognitive biasesClinical Infectious Diseases.  57:573-578. 2013
    2013 Validation of a scoring tool to select clinical vignettes 2013
    2013 NSTEMI or not: A 59-year-old man with chest pain and troponin elevationJournal of General Internal Medicine.  28:583-590. 2013
    2013 Challenges with continuity clinic and core faculty accreditation requirementsAmerican Journal of Medicine.  126:550-556. 2013
    2013 Decreasing the Ceiling Effect in Assessing Meeting Quality at an Academic Professional Meeting 2013
    2013 Widening the differential for brain masses in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: Syphilitic cerebral gummataAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  346:253-255. 2013
    2012 Medication intensification in diabetes in rural primary care: A cluster-randomised effectiveness trialBMJ Open.  2. 2012
    2012 Buyers beware: Lead poisoning due to ayurvedic medicineJournal of General Internal Medicine.  27:1384-1386. 2012
    2012 Interprofessional Education in Action. The VA Quality Scholars Fellowship ProgramNursing Clinics of North America.  47:347-354. 2012
    2012 Quality of Diabetes Mellitus Care by Rural Primary Care PhysiciansJournal of Rural Health.  28:364-371. 2012
    2012 A 60-year-old woman with chorea and weight lossJournal of General Internal Medicine.  27:747-751. 2012
    2012 The Hematology and Oncology Pediatric Patient: A Review of Fever and Neutropenia, Blood Transfusions, and Other Complex ProblemsClinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine.  13:91-98. 2012
    2012 Nominal group technique: A brainstorming tool for identifying areas to improve pain management in hospitalized patientsJournal of Hospital Medicine.  7:416-420. 2012
    2012 Mastering improvement science skills in the new era of quality and safety: The Veterans Affairs National Quality Scholars ProgramJournal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.  18:508-514. 2012
    2012 Voluntary service and dermatologyDermatologia Cosmetica Medica Y Quirurgica.  10:88-89. 2012
    2012 Selecting the best clinical vignettes for academic meetings: Should the scoring tool criteria be modified?Journal of General Internal Medicine.  27:202-206. 2012
    2011 A web-based diabetes intervention for physician: A cluster-randomized effectiveness trialInternational Journal for Quality in Health Care.  23:682-689. 2011
    2011 Marketing to increase participation in a Web-based continuing medical education cultural competence curriculumJournal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions.  31:21-27. 2011
    2011 Use of ecological momentary assessment to guide curricular change in graduate medical education.Journal of graduate medical education.  3:162-167. 2011
    2011 A middle-age woman with sudden onset dyspneaJournal of General Internal Medicine.  26:551-554. 2011
    2011 Evidence-based medicine training in a resource-poor country, the importance of leveraging personal and institutional relationshipsJournal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.  17:644-650. 2011
    2011 Patient complexity and diabetes quality of care in rural settingsJournal of the National Medical Association.  103:234-240. 2011
    2011 What should we include in a cultural competence curriculum? An emerging formative evaluation process to foster curriculum developmentAcademic Medicine.  86:333-341. 2011
    2010 Clinical prediction rule for stratifying risk of pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosisPLoS ONE.  5. 2010
    2010 An uncommon cause of headacheJournal of General Internal Medicine.  25:990. 2010
    2010 Is physician engagement with web-based CME associated with patients' baseline hemoglobin A1c levels? the rural diabetes online care studyAcademic Medicine.  85:1511-1517. 2010
    2010 Recruitment of rural physicians in a diabetes internet intervention study: Overcoming challenges and barriersJournal of the National Medical Association.  102:101-107. 2010
    2009 Characteristics that predict physician participation in a Web-Based CME activity: The MI-Plus studyJournal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions.  29:246-253. 2009
    2009 Identifying key components for an effective case report poster: An observational studyJournal of General Internal Medicine.  24:393-397. 2009
    2009 Scholarship opportunities for trainees and clinician educators: Learning outcomes from a case report writing workshopJournal of General Internal Medicine.  24:398-401. 2009
    2009 The department of veterans affairs national quality scholars fellowship program: Experience from 10 years of training quality scholarsAcademic Medicine.  84:1741-1748. 2009
    2007 Reasons for not intensifying medications: Differentiating "clinical inertia" from appropriate careJournal of General Internal Medicine.  22:1648-1655. 2007
    2007 'Correctiom:'Peer chart audits: A tool to meet Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency in practice-based learning and improvementImplementation Science.  2. 2007
    2007 Does residency training improve performance of physical examination skills?American Journal of the Medical Sciences.  333:74-77. 2007
    2006 Outpatient management of cirrhosis: A narrative reviewSouthern Medical Journal.  99:600-606. 2006
    2006 How to be an outstanding reviewer for the Journal of General Internal Medicine . . .and other journalsJournal of General Internal Medicine.  21:281-284. 2006
    2005 Case reports and clinical vignettesJournal of General Internal Medicine.  20:971. 2005
    2005 The 10-minute oral presentation: What should I focus on?American Journal of the Medical Sciences.  329:306-309. 2005
    2004 Literacy and numeracy skills and anticoagulation controlAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  328:88-93. 2004
    2003 Outcomes and perioperative hyperglycemia in patients with or without diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary artery bypass graftingAnnals of Thoracic Surgery.  75:1392-1399. 2003
    2003 Administrative data versus corrected administrative dataAmerican Journal of Medical Quality.  18:38-45. 2003
    2003 Association of pancreatitis with administration of contrast medium and intravenous lipid emulsion in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndromeSouthern Medical Journal.  96:66-69. 2003
    2003 Pyrazinamide and rifampin vs isoniazid for the treatment of latent tuberculosis: Improved completion rates but more hepatotoxicityChest.  123:102-106. 2003
    2002 Explaining evidence-based medicine in simple terms [3]Family Medicine.  34:564. 2002
    2000 Papanicolaou and wet mount smears have low sensitivity but high specificity for detecting vaginal trichomoniasisEvidence Based Medicine.  5:186. 2000
    2000 Systematic review of diagnostic tests for vaginal Trichomoniasis 2000
    2000 Reducing error, improving safety 2000
    2000 Reporting and concordance of methodologic criteria between abstracts and articles in diagnostic test studiesJournal of General Internal Medicine.  15:183-187. 2000
    2000 A meta-analysis of the Papanicolaou smear and wet mount for the diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasisAmerican Journal of Medicine.  108:301-308. 2000
    2000 Cost-effectiveness of low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of proximal deep vein thrombosisJournal of General Internal Medicine.  15:108-115. 2000
    2000 Evaluation of guidelines for the use of telemetry in the non-intensive- care settingJournal of General Internal Medicine.  15:51-55. 2000
    2000 Anticoagulant patient information material is written at high readability levelsStroke.  31:2966-2970. 2000
    2000 Judging the effectiveness of clinical pathways for pneumonia: the role of risk adjustment. 2000
    2000 Reducing error, improving safety. Medical errors must be discussed during medical education. 2000
    2000 Systematic review of diagnostic tests for vaginal trichomoniasis. 2000
    1999 Health literacy and numeracy [3] (multiple letters) 1999
    1999 Asymptomatic patients at high risk for deep venous thrombosis who receive inadequate prophylaxis should be screenedSouthern Medical Journal.  92:1145-1150. 1999
    1998 Acetaminophen and risk factors for excess anticoagulation with warfarin [1] (multiple letters) 1998
    1998 Zafirlukast in asthma.Annals of Internal Medicine.  128:70. 1998
    1997 Positive affect facilitates integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physiciansOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.  72:117-135. 1997
    1996 Balancing service and education: Improving internal medicine residencies in the managed care eraAmerican Journal of Medicine.  100:224-229. 1996
    1995 Role of telemetry monitoring in the non-intensive care unitAmerican Journal of Cardiology.  76:960-965. 1995
    1994 Outcomes of patients hospitalized to a telemetry unitAmerican Journal of Cardiology.  74:357-362. 1994
    1994 Limitations of the blood pressure response to the Valsalva maneuver as an estimate of left ventricular functionAmerican Journal of Noninvasive Cardiology.  8:95-98. 1994
    1994 Positive affect improves creative problem solving and influences reported source of practice satisfaction in physiciansMotivation and Emotion.  18:285-299. 1994
    1993 Patient preferences for novel therapy - An N-of-1 trial of garlic in the treatment for hypertensionJournal of General Internal Medicine.  8:619-621. 1993
    1992 Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated with pulmonary hemorrhage: Wegener’s granulomatosisSouthern Medical Journal.  85:181-183. 1992
    1990 Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and rheumatoid arthritisSouthern Medical Journal.  83:599-600. 1990
    1990 Eosinophilic myositis an expression of L-tryptophan toxicity?Journal of Rheumatology.  17:1554-1556. 1990
    1990 Esophageal involvement in secondary amyloidosis mimicking achalasiaJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology.  12:447-450. 1990
    1989 Types of epidemiological studies in Peruvian biomedical journals. 1989
    1989 Cerebral infarction associated with cocaine useHenry Ford Hospital medical journal.  37:50-51. 1989
    1988 Serum creatinine concentrations in healthy newborns: Reference ranges during the first five days of lifeHenry Ford Hospital medical journal.  36:193-194. 1988


    Year Title Altmetric
    2014 Implementation research: Beyond the traditional randomized controlled trial.  275-312. 2014
    2008 Implementation research: Beyond the traditional randomized controlled trial.  217-244. 2008

    Research Overview

  • Over the past 30 years, Dr. Estrada has led successful multi-disciplinary collaboration in the three mission areas: patient care, research, and education (national and international). Collaboration has included educators and clinicians from nursing, pediatrics, psychiatry, physical medicine, and hospital medicine. Notably, his early research on low-level literacy among elderly patients receiving anticoagulants led him to develop accessible-language brochures and to implement a nurse-led anticoagulation management service.

    With over 100 publications, he has mentored dozens of faculty, fellows, residents, and students. He has applied broad range of research methodology (cross-sectional, cohort, clustered randomized trials, decision analysis, clinical reasoning, medical decision-making, and clinical prediction rules).
  • Teaching Overview

  • Estrada has research and education interests in quality improvement, clinical reasoning, and medical education - recently, by identifying characteristics of high –performing medical students. He is interested in faculty personal and professional development – in particular women and under-represented minority.

    Estrada Co-Directs the Birmingham VAMC, Quality Scholars Fellowship, https://www.vaqs.org/birmingham/, supported by the Office of Academic Affiliations (https://www.va.gov/oaa ). Funded continuously since its inception, our program site is known for interprofessional training, quality and safety education, health services research, surgical outcomes, and inpatient quality care (nurse-led interventions and others). Our site includes fellows from nursing (pre/post PhD and DNP doctoral students), pharmacy, and medicine (from surgery and medicine- including GIM, Hospital Medicine and other sub specialties).

    He co-edited a Joint Commission book with two nurse leaders and a physician from the VAQS program. Splaine, M. E., Dolansky, M. A., Patrician, P. A., Estrada, C. A. Editors. Oakbrook: Joint Commission Resources; Practice-based Learning and Improvement: A Clinical Improvement Action Guide, 3rd Edition. 2012.

    Funded by Fogarty International Center (Peru ICOHRTA Network for AIDS/TB Research Training), the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Cayetano Heredia University, Dr. Estrada has taught decision analysis, evidence-based medicine, and innovations in medical education to Peruvian faculty.
  • Teaching Activities

  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2007)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2008)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2010)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2011)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2012)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2013)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2017)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2018)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2019)
  • 28-518 - MASTER PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (Spring Term 2020)
  • Education And Training

  • Henry Ford Hospital, Internship
  • Henry Ford Hospital, Residency
  • Henry Ford Hospital, Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • Bachelor's Degree in Medical Clinical Sciences / Graduate Medical Studies, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University 2004
  • Master of Sciences or Mathematics in Health Professions and Related Clinical Sciences, University of Michigan System : Ann Arbor 1993
  • Doctor of Medicine, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University 1987
  • Full Name

  • Carlos Estrada