Selected Publications

Academic Article

Year Title Altmetric
2018 An open-label, multiple ascending dose study of the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab in viremic HIV patientsPLoS One.  13. 2018
2015 Allospecific CD4+ T cells retain effector function and are actively regulated by Treg cells in the context of transplantation toleranceEuropean Journal of Immunology.  45:2017-2027. 2015
2014 Enhanced auto-antibody production and Mott cell formation in FcμR-deficient autoimmune miceInternational Immunology.  26:659-672. 2014
2012 Antibody-mediated rejection of single class i MHC-disparate cardiac allograftsAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  12:2017-2028. 2012
2012 A simple technique for augmentation of axonal ingrowth into chondroitinase-treated acellular nerve grafts using nerve growth factorAnnals of Plastic Surgery.  68:518-524. 2012
2011 The potency of allospecific tregs cells appears to correlate with T cell receptor functional avidityAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  11:1610-1620. 2011
2010 Comparison of immunologic assays for detecting immune responses in HIV immunotherapeutic studies: AIDS clinical trials group trial A5181Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.  17:1452-1459. 2010
2010 Measurement of antiretroviral drugs in the lungs of HIV-infected patientsHIV Therapy.  4:247-251. 2010
2010 Targeting MHC class I monomers to dendritic cells inhibits the indirect pathway of allorecognition and the production of IgG alloantibodies leading to long-term allograft survivalJournal of Immunology.  184:1757-1764. 2010
2009 A randomized therapeutic vaccine trial of canarypox-HIV-pulsed dendritic cells vs. canarypox-HIV alone in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapyVaccine.  27:6088-6094. 2009
2009 Preferential priming of alloreactive T cells with indirect reactivityAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  9:709-718. 2009
2008 Conferring indirect allospecificity on CD4+CD25+ Tregs by TCR gene transfer favors transplantation tolerance in miceJournal of Clinical Investigation.  118:3619-3628. 2008
2008 CD8+ suppressor T cells resurrectedHuman Immunology.  69:715-720. 2008
2008 Treatment response in acute/early infection versus advanced AIDS: Equivalent first and second phases of HIV RNA declineAIDS.  22:957-962. 2008
2008 Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on viral burden in the lungs of HIV-infected subjectsJournal of Infectious Diseases.  197:109-116. 2008
2007 Antigen, in the presence of TGF-β, induces up-regulation of FoxP3 gfp+ in CD4+ TCR transgenic T cells that mediate linked suppression of CD8+ T cell responsesJournal of Immunology.  179:2105-2114. 2007
2007 The virologic, immunologic, and clinical effects of interleukin 2 with potent antiretroviral therapy in patients with moderately advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. A randomized controlled clinical trial - AIDS clinical trials group 328JAMA Internal Medicine.  167:597-605. 2007
2006 A randomized, partially blinded phase 2 trial of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-specific immunizations, and interleukin-2 cycles to promote efficient control of viral replication (ACTG A5024)Journal of Infectious Diseases.  194:1672-1676. 2006
2006 TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells activated in the presence of TGFβ express FoxP3 and mediate linked suppression of primary immune responses and cardiac allograft rejectionInternational Immunology.  18:1549-1562. 2006
2006 Evidence that intermittent structured treatment interruption, but not immunization with ALVAC-HIV vCP1452, promotes host control of HIV replication: The results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5068Journal of Infectious Diseases.  194:623-632. 2006
2005 Enhanced responsiveness to antigen contributes more to immunological memory in CD4 T cells than increases in the number of cellsImmunology.  116:318-327. 2005
2005 Intratumoral administration of a recombinant canarypox virus expressing interleukin 12 in patients with metastatic melanomaHuman gene therapy. Clinical development.  16:91-100. 2005
2004 Evidence for cooperativity in the rejection of cardiac grafts mediated by CD4+ TCR Tg T cells specific for a defined allopeptideAmerican Journal of Transplantation.  4:1762-1768. 2004
2004 Activation and migration of allo-peptide specific TCR transgenic T cells in cardiac allograft rejectionCellular Immunology.  230:44-55. 2004
2004 CD4+ T-cell receptor transgenic T cells alone can reject vascularized heart transplants through the indirect pathway of alloantigen recognitionTransplantation.  77:452-455. 2004
2004 Viral and cellular dynamics in HIV disease.Current HIV/AIDS Reports.  1:40-46. 2004
2002 Vitamin A enhances in vitro Th2 development via retinoid X receptor pathwayJournal of Immunology.  168:4495-4503. 2002
2002 Addition of cyclophosphamide to antiretroviral therapy does not diminish the cellular reservoir in HIV-infected personsAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  18:535-543. 2002
2002 Evidence of immune reconstitution in antiretroviral drug-experienced patients with advanced HIV diseaseAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  18:95-102. 2002
2002 Immune function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with etanerceptClinical Immunology.  103:13-21. 2002
2001 Viral and Cellular Dynamics in HIV Disease.Current Infectious Disease Reports.  3:295-301. 2001
2001 Quantitation of HIV-1 by real-time PCR with a unique fluorogenic probeJournal of Virological Methods.  93:33-42. 2001
2001 Perspectives on inducing efficient immune control of HIV-1 replication - A new goal for HIV therapeutics?AIDS.  15. 2001
2000 Heterogeneity of T cell clones specific for a single indirect alloantigenic epitope (I-Ab/H-2K(d)54-68) that mediate transplant rejectionTransplantation.  70:1516-1524. 2000
2000 Recurrence of the acute HIV syndrome after interruption of antiretroviral therapy in a patient with chronic HIV infection: A case reportACP journal club.  133. 2000
2000 Stability in the HIV vDNA pool in peripheral CD4+ T cells of untreated patients by single tube quantitative PCRJournal of Virological Methods.  87:1-12. 2000
2000 Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy and thymic transplantation on immunoreconstitution in HIV infectionAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  16:403-413. 2000
2000 Persistence of episomal HIV-1 infection intermediates in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapyNature Medicine.  6:76-81. 2000
2000 The arthus reaction in rodents: Species-specific requirement of complementJournal of Immunology.  164:463-468. 2000
1999 Evaluation of distinct blood lymphocyte populations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects in the absence or presence of effective therapyJournal of Infectious Diseases.  180:1851-1862. 1999
1999 Selective gene delivery to head and neck cancer cells via an integrin targeted adenoviral vectorClinical Cancer Research.  5:2571-2579. 1999
1999 Correlation between circulating stromal cell-derived factor 1 levels and CD4+ cell count in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individualsAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  15:1063-1071. 1999
1999 The zinc finger protein GLI induces cellular sensitivity to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycinMolecular Cancer Research.  10:503-516. 1999
1999 Constant mean viral copy number per infected cell in tissues regardless of high, low, or undetectable plasma HIV RNAJournal of Experimental Medicine.  189:1545-1554. 1999
1999 Immune clearance of HIV type 1 replication-active cells: A model of two patterns of steady state HIV infectionAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  15:223-227. 1999
1999 Initial increase in blood CD4+ lymphocytes after HIV antiretroviral therapy reflects redistribution from lymphoid tissuesJournal of Clinical Investigation.  103:1391-1398. 1999
1998 T cell clones specific for indirect allo-peptide, I-Ab/H-2Kd75-89 1998
1998 Nondepleting humanized anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritisJournal of Rheumatology.  25:221-228. 1998
1998 Heterogeneity in the clonal T cell response: Implications for models of T cell activation and cytokine phenotype developmentImmunologic Research.  17:279-302. 1998
1998 Measurement of induced cytokines in AIDS clinical trials using whole blood: A preliminary reportClinical and Vaccine Immunology.  5:556-560. 1998
1997 The effect of rhGH in vitro on donor-specific hyporesponsiveness in pediatric transplantationPediatric Transplantation.  1:90-97. 1997
1997 Effects of tapering doses of oral prednisone on viral load among HIV- infected patients with unexplained weight lossAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  13:1533-1537. 1997
1997 Single-cell analyses of CD4+ T cells from αβ T cell receptor-transgenic mice: A distinct mucosal cytokine phenotype in the absence of transgene-specific antigenEuropean Journal of Immunology.  27:1774-1781. 1997
1997 Immunosuppression by inhibition of cellular adhesion mediated by leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in murine cardiac transplantationTransplantation.  63:876-885. 1997
1997 Visualization of Antigen-Specific T Cell Activation and Cytokine Expression in VivoJournal of Immunology.  158:649-657. 1997
1997 Growth hormone induces interferon gamma production and may play a role in the presentation of alloantigens in vitroNeuroimmunomodulation.  4:19-27. 1997
1997 Quantitative assessment of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in chronic adult periodontitisMolecular Oral Microbiology.  12:336-344. 1997
1997 Transductional efficacy and safety of an intraperitoneally delivered adenovirus encoding an anti-erbB-2 intracellular single-chain antibody for ovarian cancer gene therapyGynecologic Oncology.  64:378-385. 1997
1996 Anti-LFA-1 mAb drives naive CD4 T cells to A TH2-like phenotype 1996
1996 Combination of in situ hybridization and quantitative, competitive rt-pcr for the determination of cytokine mRNA copy number in activated T cells 1996
1996 Direct alloantigen stimulation of T cells in vitro (MLR) shows inhibition characteristics of low TCR avidity responses 1996
1996 In situ hybridization and QC-RT-PCR analysis of arthroscopic biopsies of early rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue 1996
1996 In vivo analysis of CD4+ T cell responses to oral immunization 1996
1996 In vivo cytokine production and antibody isotype profiles reflect the TR1 or TN2 phenotype of adoptivley transferred αβ-tcr transgenic cells 1996
1996 MHC derived peptides functional in indirect alloantigen recognition in mice 1996
1996 Visualization of T cell activation and cytokine expression in vivo 1996
1996 γδ T cells are secondary participants in acute graft-versus-host reactions initiated by CD4+ αβ T cellsEuropean Journal of Immunology.  26:420-427. 1996
1996 Regulation of mucosal immune responses - The missing link in IBD?Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.  10:105-109. 1996
1996 The effect of recombinant human growth hormone on responses to alloantigens in the pediatric transplant patientPediatric Nephrology.  10:280-282. 1996
1995 Simultaneous quantitation of multiple cytokine mRNAs by RT-PCR utilizing plate based EIA methodologyImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  187:273-285. 1995
1995 Phase II Trial of Murine Monoclonal Antibody D612 Combined with Recombinant Human Monocyte Colony-stimulating Factor (rhM-CSF) in Patients with Metastatic Gastrointestinal CancerCancer Research.  55:4339-4346. 1995
1995 Single cell analysis of cytokine gene coexpression during CD4+ T-cell phenotype development 1995
1995 Regeneration of T cells after chemotherapy.New England Journal of Medicine.  332:1651-1652. 1995
1995 Regeneration of t cells after chemotherapyNew England Journal of Medicine.  332:1650-1652. 1995
1995 Differences in the degree of depletion, rate of recovery, and the preferential elimination of naive CD4+ T cells by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (GK1.5) in young and aged miceJournal of Immunology.  154:6644-6654. 1995
1995 Germinal center T cells exhibit properties of memory helper T cellsCellular Immunology.  163:206-214. 1995
1995 In situ hybridization for cytokine mRNA with digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes Sensitivity of detection and double label applicationsImmunotechnology : an international journal of immunological engineering.  182:93-106. 1995
1995 In situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes: Facts and artifacts 1995
1995 Interleukin‐2 diphtheria fusion protein (dab486il‐2) in refractory rheumatoid arthritis a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial with open‐label extensionArthritis and Rheumatism.  38:1177-1186. 1995
1994 Heterogeneity of single cell cytokine gene expression in clonal T cell populationsJournal of Experimental Medicine.  180:1251-1262. 1994
1994 Characterization of avian natural killer cells and their intracellular CD3 protein complexEuropean Journal of Immunology.  24:1685-1691. 1994
1994 Cytokines in the host response to mycotic agentsMedical Mycology.  32:203-210. 1994
1994 Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis occurs in severe combined immunodeficient miceGastroenterology.  107:1643-1652. 1994
1994 Infiltration of CD4+ T cells into cornea during development of onchocerca volvulus-induced experimental sclerosing keratitis in miceCellular Immunology.  159:306-314. 1994
1994 Treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis with a chimeric ANTI‐CD4 monoclonal antibodyArthritis and Rheumatism.  37:834-838. 1994
1993 Cyclosporin A-induced autoimmune disease in miceJournal of Immunology.  151:1039-1050. 1993
1993 Intestinal T lymphocytes in the chicken express an integrin‐like antigenEuropean Journal of Immunology.  23:313-319. 1993
1993 Use of a chimeric monoclonal anti‐CD4 antibody in patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritisArthritis and Rheumatism.  36:307-318. 1993
1993 Widespread tissue distribution of aminopeptidase A, an evolutionarily conserved ectoenzyme recognized by the BP‐1 antibodyHLA.  42:488-496. 1993
1992 Total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of early or recurrent heart rejectionJournal of Heart and Lung Transplantation.  11:902-912. 1992
1991 Analysis of gamma delta T cells in the chicken.Seminars in Immunology.  3:109-117. 1991
1991 Analysis of γδ T cells in the chickenSeminars in Immunology.  3:109-117. 1991
1991 Avian T Cell OntogenyAdvances in Immunology.  50:87-117. 1991
1991 Regulation of mucosal responses by cd4+ t lymphocytes: Effects of anti-l3t4 treatment on the gastrointestinal immune systemInternational Immunology.  3:793-805. 1991
1991 Reticular cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues express the phosphatidylinositol‐linked BP‐3 antigenEuropean Journal of Immunology.  21:509-515. 1991
1990 T cell differentiation in birdsSeminars in Immunology.  2:79-86. 1990
1990 A third sublineage of avian T cells can be identified with a T cell receptor-3-specific antibodyJournal of Immunology.  145:3547-3555. 1990
1990 Development of cytoplasmic CD3+/T cell receptor‐negative cells in the peripheral lymphoid tissues of chickensEuropean Journal of Immunology.  20:1345-1350. 1990
1990 Effect of cyclosporin A on the ontogeny of different T cell sublineages in chickensJournal of Immunology.  144:3257-3265. 1990
1990 Ontogeny of T cell receptors in the chicken thymusJournal of Immunology.  144:1161-1168. 1990
1989 Analysis of the first two waves of thymus homing stem cells and their T cell progeny in chick-quail chimerasJournal of Experimental Medicine.  170:543-557. 1989
1989 Coronary artery to right ventricle fistula in heart transplant recipients: A complication of endomyocardial biopsyJournal of the American College of Cardiology.  14:258-261. 1989
1989 Cytoplasmic CD3+surface CD8+lymphocytes develop as a thymus-independent lineage in chick-quail chimerasEuropean Journal of Immunology.  19:1449-1455. 1989
1989 Cytoplasmic CD3+ surface CD8+ lymphocytes develop as a thymus‐independent lineage in chick‐quail chimerasEuropean Journal of Immunology.  19:1449-1455. 1989
1989 Epithelial homing of γδ T cells? [15]Nature.  341:113-114. 1989
1989 Functional and morphological studies of long-term islet allografts in the renal subcapsular space of the BB/W ratTransplantation.  47:580-582. 1989
1989 T-cell development in birds 1989
1989 Tissue localization and CD8 accessory molecule expression of Tγδ cells in humansJournal of Immunology.  142:3045-3049. 1989
1988 Characterization of the avian T cell receptorImmunologic Research.  7:303-317. 1988
1988 Avian T cells expressing γδ receptors localize in the splenic sinusoids and the intestinal epitheliumJournal of Immunology.  141:2200-2205. 1988
1988 Lack of an obligate role for IFN-γ in the primary in vitro mixed lymphocyte responseJournal of Immunology.  140:1148-1152. 1988
1988 The effects of immunosuppressive pharmacological agents on the induction of cytotoxic and suppressor T lymphocytes in vitro.Immunopharmacology.  15:65-72. 1988
1986 Alloantigen-specific suppressor T cells are not inhibited by cyclosporin A, but do require IL 2 for activationJournal of Immunology.  137:809-813. 1986
1986 Effect of cyclosporine and low-temperature culture on prevention of rejection of islet xenografts (rat-to-mouse)Transplantation.  41:661-662. 1986
1986 The effect of cyclosporin-A, low-temperature culture, and anti-Ia antibodies on prevention of rejection of rat islet allograftsDiabetes.  35:83-88. 1986
1985 A new neonatal short limbed dwarfism 1985
1984 Induction of specific suppressor cells by treatment with cyclosporin A and alloantigen immunization 1984
1983 Ir gene control of immune responses to insulins. II. Phenotypic differences in T cell activity among nonresponder strains of miceJournal of Immunology.  130:2062-2066. 1983
1982 T cell-independent responses to an Ir gene-controlled antigen. I. Characteristics of the immune response to insulin complexed to Brucella abortusJournal of Immunology.  129:6-10. 1982
1981 Ir gene control of the immune response to insulins 1981
1981 Ir gene control of the immune response to insulins. I. Pork insulin stimulates T cell activity in nonresponder miceJournal of Immunology.  126:603-607. 1981


Year Title Altmetric
2017 Data interpretation in laboratory medicine.  489-510. 2017
2007 Prospects for HIV antigen specific Immune Enhancement 2007
2002 Host Directed Therapies for HIV disease 2002
2002 Some Basic Cellular Immunology Principles applied to the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases 2002
2001 Polymorphism in HLA and other Elements of the Class I and II Response Pathways 2001
1995 Regulation of mucosal immune responses - the missing link in IBD?.  81-81. 1995
1994 Intraepithelial Lymphocytes in Birds.  163-174. 1994
1989 Lymphocyte Development and Receptor Selection - T Cells T-cell Development in Birds.  69-73. 1989
1981 Ir gene control of the insulin-specific immune response in mice.  71-71. 1981

Research Overview

  • Dr. Bucy’s research interests revolve around the regulation of immune responses by T cells, particularly the forms of regulation that develop in vivo in situations with chronic antigen presence. Conventional model systems used to understand the course of an immune response have used model antigens given in discreet inoculations so that the clearance of antigen is the dominant overall control mechanism. In physiological situations such as solid organ transplantation, chronic viral diseases, and organ specific autoimmune diseases, antigen is usually not cleared, but the immune system develops various control mechanisms that limit immune damage. A major model system is analysis of the regulatory mechanisms operative in solid organ allograft rejection, using vascularized murine heart transplants. Our lab has produced multiple novel strains of mice including TCR Transgenic lines, mice that express the relevant transplant antigen recognized by the TCR Tg T cells as a transgene, allelic markers systems to track T cells and antigen presenting cells in vivo, selected mice with knockouts of several relevant control molecules. These studies are the conditions of stimulation which give rise to suppressive functions in these TCR Tg T cells and how such suppression can block allograft rejection. In these studies, multiple techniques are used including extensive use of flow cytometry, multiple label immunofluorescence in tissue sections, in situ hybridization analysis of viral and cellular RNA species, quantitative-competitive RT-PCR, and cell culture techniques.
  • Investigator On

  • Private Grant  awarded by Genentech
  • Education And Training

  • Barnes Hospital, Internship
  • Barnes Hospital, Residency
  • Doctor of Medicine, Washington University/St. Louis 1981
  • Doctor of Philosophy in Cell / Cellular and Molecular Biology, Washington University/St. Louis 1981
  • Full Name

  • Ralph Bucy
  • Fax

  • 205-975-7074